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D. W. R. Ridgway

Acquarossa, a plateau 6 km. (3 ½ mi.) north of Viterbo, is the site of a small and anonymous *Etruscan centre in the territory of *Caere. Excavation (1966–78) of its component areas—including the monumental complex in zone F, variously defined as a ‘palace’, a ‘regia’, or a ‘sacred area’ (with a temple)—has combined with contemporary work at *Poggio Civitate to focus attention on early Etruscan building techniques, domestic and public architecture, town planning, and non-funerary religious practice. Like Poggio Civitate, Acquarossa has yielded copious architectural *terracottas. The most important category, previously unknown or unrecognized, is that of the *orientalizing cut-out acroteria used on two-slope roofs between c.650/600 and c.575. They have no Greek models or counterparts, and clearly follow schemes derived from the strong indigenous tradition of exuberantly decorated roof-tops documented by the impasto hut-urns used as cinerary receptacles (but representing real huts) in Etruria and Latium between the 10th and 8th centuries.



John Wilkes

Adamklissi, the site of three Roman monuments in the Dobrudja plain (South Romania): (1) an altar (16.2 m. (53 ft.) square and c.6 m. (20 ft.) high) recording legionary and auxiliary casualties, probably from *Trajan's first Dacian campaign (ce 101/2) rather than that of *Domitian; (2) a circular mausoleum or tropaeum (c.40 m. (131 ft.) diam.) standing on the crest of the hill, built of the same local stone as the altar, and perhaps also linked with Trajan's first Dacian war (ce 101/2); (3) a circular tropaeum (c.30 m. (100 ft.) diam.) in the better-quality Deleni stone dedicated in ce 108/9 (CIL 3. 12467; cf. E. Doruţiu-Boilă, Dacia (1961), 345 ff.) surmounted by a hexagonal column and victory tropaeum, dominating the hill and visible from the Danube more than 40 km. (25 mi.) away. See trophies.



H. Kathryn Lomas

Aecae, *Daunian city 25 km. (15 ½ mi.) south-west of Foggia. A Roman ally, it defected to Hannibal in 216 bce but was recaptured. Colonies were founded under Augustus and Septimius Severus, and it became a stage on the *via Traiana. Aerial photography shows a large area of *centuriation nearby.



Antony Spawforth

Aedepsus (mod. Loutra Aidepsou), Euboean coastal town dependent on *Histiaea, famous in antiquity for its hot springs, known to Aristotle (Mete. 2. 366a) and still in use. It prospered in imperial times as a playground for the wealthy, equipped with luxurious swimming-pools and dining-rooms (Plut. Mor.



Graham Burton

Aerarium, derived from aes, denotes ‘treasury’. The main aerarium of Rome was the aerarium Saturni, so called from the temple below the Capitol, in which it was placed. Here were kept state documents, both financial and non-financial (including leges (see lex (1)) and *senatus consulta which were not valid until lodged there), and the state treasure, originally mainly of bronze (aes) but including also ingots of gold and silver and other valuables. The *tabularium (1) was built near it in 78 bce.The aerarium was controlled by the quaestors under the supervision of the senate, with a subordinate staff of scribae, *viatores, etc. The *tribuni aerarii, men of a property-class a little below the knights, were probably concerned with making payments from the tribes into the treasury. The aerarium sanctius was a special reserve, fed by the 5 per cent tax on emancipations. Treasure was withdrawn from it in 209 bce and on other occasions.



Stephen Mitchell

Was the most important city of northern *Phrygia in Roman times. The well-preserved ruins of the site are dominated by the peripteral (colonnaded) Ionic temple of *Zeus, dedicated under Domitian in ce 92. According to local legend Zeus was born in the Steunos cave which overlooked the river Pencalas near the city (the site has been identified and excavated). There were extensive sacred lands around the city, which were used to settle military colonists from the Attalid and Bithynian kingdoms. A long dispute over the revenues from this land was settled by Roman proconsuls of Asia in the 120s, and this appears to have unleashed a period of great prosperity in the 2nd cent. ce. During this time Aezani was transformed from a modest agricultural town (there are traces of late Hellenistic buildings and it may have been the minting centre for the people of Phrygia Epictetus) into an imperial architectural show-piece, with a theatre, a stadium, a large bath-house, several bridges across the river Pencalas which flowed through the city, and cemeteries full of elaborately decorated tombs. Aezani was an enthusiastic member of the *Panhellenion at Athens, where its best-known citizen and civic benefactor, M.


Africa, Roman  

William Nassau Weech, Brian Herbert Warmington, and R. J. A. Wilson

The *Punic Wars made Rome heir to the Carthaginian empire. In 146 bce she left most territory in the hands of *Masinissa's descendants, but formed a new province (Africa) in the most fertile part. This covered about 13,000 sq. km. (5,000 sq. mi.) of north and central Tunisia, north-east of a boundary line (the fossa regia, ‘the royal ditch’) from Thabraca to *Hadrumetum; it was governed by a praetor from Utica. Except for *Utica and six other towns of Phoenician origin which had supported Rome rather than Carthage in the Punic Wars, most of the land became *ager publicus. Although the attempt by Gaius C. *Sempronius Gracchus to found a colonia at Carthage failed, Roman and Italian traders and farmers settled in the province in large numbers, and many of C. *Marius (1)'s veterans settled west of the fossa regia. After the battle of Thapsus in 46 bce*Caesar added to the existing province (thenceforth called Africa Vetus, ‘Old Africa’) the Numidian territory of Juba I (Africa Nova, ‘New Africa’).


agricultural implements, Roman  

M. Stephen Spurr

Roman agricultural implements comprised slaves (see slavery), animals, and tools (Varro, Rust. 1. 17. 1). Only the third category is reviewed here. The essential similarity between the inventories in M. *Porcius Cato (1) (Agr. 10, 11) and *Palladius (1. 42) some 600 years later indicates technological stability or stagnation, depending on one's point of view. (This very stability has enabled researchers working in Mediterranean areas little affected by mechanized agriculture to interpret with some security the growing archaeological evidence, the ancient representations in art, and the Roman agricultural writers.) Yet while innovations such as the Gallic reaping machine (Pliny, HN 18. 296; Palladius, 7. 2. 2–4) were rare, improvements in design were common. Examples include: in arable cultivation, the plough (e.g. Pliny, HN 18. 171–2) and threshing sledge (Varro, Rust. 1. 52. 2); and, in arboriculture, the vine-dresser's knife, trench-measuring devices (Columella, Rust.


agriculture, Roman  

Dominic W. Rathbone

By modern standards Roman agriculture was technically simple, average yields were low, transport was difficult and costly, and storage was inefficient. This limited urbanization (and hence ‘industrialization’) obliged the bulk of the population to live and work on the land. Nevertheless, in the late republic and earlier Principate agriculture and urbanization (see urbanism (Roman)) developed together to levels probably not again matched until the late 18th cent. Roman agriculture broadly fits the ahistoric pattern which is commonly seen as characteristic of the Mediterranean region: based on the triad of *cereals, vines (see wine) and *olives, at the mercy of a semi-arid *climate with low and unreliable rainfall, and dominated by small farms practising a polyculture aimed principally at self-sufficiency and safety. But two factors—the geophysical diversity of Italy (let alone of Rome's provinces), and the effects of political and social developments—led to historically important variations between areas and across time in the organization and practice of agriculture. Since the 1950s there has been an enormous growth in archaeological research—surface survey of rural areas, excavations of farmsteads, study of the ancient environment (through pollen, seeds, bones)—which is taking our knowledge and understanding of Roman agriculture far beyond what could be discovered from the evidence of the literary sources.


Alba Fucens  

T. W. Potter

Alba Fucens, a Latin colony of 6,000 (see ius latii) founded by Rome in 303 bce, on a hill above the Fucine lake (see fucinus lacus) in central Italy. It was connected to Rome by the *via Valeria, a route of great antiquity. Alba usually supported the Roman government, e.g. against *Hannibal, the socii (90 bce; see social war (3)), *Caesar, and M. *Antonius (2) (Mark Antony). In the 2nd cent. bce, dethroned kings such as *Syphax were confined here. The walls, which extend for nearly 3 km. (1 ¾ mi.), originated in the 3rd cent. bce, and the town saw substantial replanning in the 1st cent. bce. Extensive excavations have revealed the forum, basilica, shops, temples, theatres, amphitheatre, etc. Decline began in the 3rd cent. ce, and the place is not mentioned after 537 when Justinian's troops were stationed here.


Albanus lacus  

Edward Togo Salmon and T. W. Potter

Albanus lacus (mod. Lago Albano), ‘Alban Lake’, a crater lake in the *Albanus mons near Rome. Its wooded banks in imperial times were studded with *villas, e.g. *Domitian's. Lacking natural outlets, its waters reach the Rivus Albanus, and thence the Tiber, via a tunnel, 1,800 m. (1,968 yds.) in length, through the crater rim built c.



Tim Cornell

An album was a whitened board or tablet on which information could be published in writing. Such tablets were widely used in Roman public life, for example to publicize the *praetors' edicts. Album was also the standard term for a published list or register. The album senatorium was the official list of members of the *senate which was publicly posted outside the senate-house from the time of *Augustus.


alcoholism, Roman  

John Maxwell O'Brien and Barney Rickenbacker

The ancient Romans were as interested in the harmful effects of excessive drinking and chronic intoxication as their Greek counterparts. In On the Nature of Things, *Lucretius writes that wine's fury disturbs the soul, debilitates the body, and provokes quarrels (3. 476–83). The younger *Seneca warns that habitual drunkenness so weakens the mind that its consequences are felt long after the drinking has stopped (Ep. 83. 26). He notes that some men become so tolerant of wine that even though they are inebriated they appear to be sober (Ep. 83. 11). Seneca also suggests that drunkenness tends to disclose and magnify character defects (Ep. 83. 19–20). In his Naturalis historia, *Pliny (1) the Elder finds irony in the fact that men spend hard-earned money on something that can damage the mind and cause madness (14. 137). Like the Greeks, Pliny comments on truth in wine (‘in vino veritas’), but emphasizes that the truths therein revealed are often better left unspoken (HN 14.



John Frederick Drinkwater

Alesia, a hill-fort of the Mandubii, modern Alise-Ste Reine, where, in 52 bce, Caesar besieged and captured *Vercingetorix. The site was not abandoned, but developed as a thriving township, which survived until the later 4th cent. Archaeologically it is of great importance. Its Gallic walls and Roman siege-works were uncovered in the 19th cent. Modern research has concentrated on the public and private buildings of the Gallo-Roman period, and has exposed impressive remains. Literary evidence for the production of high-quality metalwork here has been confirmed by archaeological finds.



Edward Togo Salmon and T. W. Potter

Aletrium (mod. Alatri), town of the *Hernici 70 km. (43 mi.) south-east of Rome. Always loyal to Rome after 358 bce, Aletrium became a prosperous *municipium (Cic. Clu.46) and remained such (reject Lib. colon.23). Its massive polygonal walls have survived almost intact, those surrounding the citadel being particularly remarkable. There is also an early *aqueduct of c.



Edward Togo Salmon and D. W. R. Ridgway

Allifae, mountain town overlooking the *Volturnus the gateway between *Samnium and *Campania: modern Alife, which has an archaeological museum (an epigraphic collection is in nearby Piedimonte Matese). Strategic Allifae changed hands repeatedly in the Samnite Wars. Under Rome it descended to lower ground and became a flourishing town with well-preserved Roman walls, baths, and a theatre.



Edward Togo Salmon and T. W. Potter

Altinum (mod. Altino, near Venice), from the 5th cent. bce a centre of the *Veneti (2), and later a Roman *municipium. It prospered as a highway junction, where the *via Postumia, *via Popillia, *via Annia (1), and transalpine via Claudia Augusta met, and was a fashionable resort with rich *villas (Mart.



R. J. A. Wilson

Ammaedara (mod. Haidra), a Roman city in western Tunisia on the Carthage–Theveste trunk road, 36 km. (22 mi.) north-east of the latter. The first fortress of the Legio III Augusta was established here in Augustan times on a virgin site close to the oued Haidra. The exact position of the fortress is unknown, but it is assumed to lie under the Byzantine fortress at the heart of the site; legionary tombstones from a necropolis to the east demonstrate the presence of the legion. When the fortress was moved to *Thevestec. ce 75, a town was founded as colonia Flavia Augusta Aemerita Ammaedara (CIL 8. 308). Imposing ruins, including those of a capitolium (see capitol), a theatre, baths, an arch of Septimius Severus (195), and several mausolea, are spread out over an area of some 1,400×600 m. (1,500×650 yds.), but little excavation has been conducted. Ammaedara was a notable Christian centre, with bishops at least from 256; five churches of the 4th–6th cents. have been identified. A large Byzantine fortress (200×110 m.: 220×120 yds) dominates the centre of the site.



D. L. Bomgardner

The earliest surviving permanent amphitheatres are found in Campania, the well-preserved example at Pompeii (see figure 1), called spectacula (amphitheatre) by its builders (CIL 10. 852), being the only precisely datable example (c. 70bce). It is likely, however, that this construction replaced an earlier building. Golvin has now suggested that a pre-Roman lozenge-shaped monument preceded the Roman construction, postulating the later Roman addition of stone elliptical seating in the lowest zone of the cavea.1

Capua, a renowned centre for gladiatorial excellence in the late republic, had an early amphitheatre, datable to the republican period (Gracchan or at least the second half of 2nd century bce); this has recently been excavated (see figure 2).

Welch examines the earliest permanent amphitheatres, linking the majority closely with the foundation of Sullan veteran colonies.2 However, see also Hufschmid for important critiques of this survey and its methodology.


amphorae, Roman  

J. Theodore Peña

Amphorae were large ceramic jars employed in the Roman world for the packaging and transport of a limited set of liquid and semi-liquid foodstuffs—chiefly wine, olive oil, and various kinds of fish preserves and processed fish products—and certain other substances. They were manufactured in a large number of distinct shapes—generally referred to as classes—linked to specific regions and employed for specific kinds of contents. For this reason amphorae are treated by scholars as proxy markers for the distribution of these categories of foodstuffs and, on account of their abundance and ubiquity in the archaeological record, they constitute one of the most important forms of material evidence for economic activity in the Roman world from the 3rd century bce down to the end of antiquity.We possess a wide range of evidence relating to amphorae. The remains of workshops in which amphorae were manufactured have been identified in many parts of the Roman world, and many of these have been subject to surface investigations and/or excavation. Amphorae occur in abundance on archaeological sites in most parts of the Roman world, most often in fragmentary condition, though in some cases more or less intact. These include amphora production workshops, sites relating to their filling or distribution (food processing/packaging facilities, .