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date: 14 July 2024

Therafree

Therafree

  • Sturt W. Manning

Summary

The volcano of Thera (Santorini) is the southernmost of the Cycladic islands in the Aegean and offered an important harbour and nexus of communication for the region. A rich archaeological history attesting to widespread contacts was dramatically abbreviated in the middle of the 2nd millennium bce when there was an enormous volcanic eruption that buried most of the island. This entombment, while ending life on the island for hundreds of years, preserved buildings, artefacts, and notably a large body of wall-paintings that form the greatest collection of prehistoric art from the region. Thera was resettled in the early Iron Age and is best known in classical literature for sending a colony to Cyrene (Libya). The ancient city of Thera has remains from the Geometric through the Roman period; the island was a naval base under the Ptolemaic Empire. Thera came to scholarly attention in the later 19th century ce when a combination of quarrying pumice on the island for use in the Suez Canal (1859–1869) and a set of small eruptions (1866–1870) attracted scientific attention and highlighted the buried archaeology.

Subjects

  • Ancient Geography
  • Greek Material Culture: Bronze Age

Updated in this version

Article rewritten to reflect current scholarship and images added.

Thera (modern Santorini, approximately 35 miles2, or 90 km2) is the southernmost of the Cycladic islands. Thera, Therasia, Aspronisi, and the two Kamenoi islands are the remnants of a volcanic island surrounding the flooded caldera of the Thera or Santorini volcano (last very small eruption in 1950 ce). The exact shape of the pre-eruption island remains debated, but it appears clear there was already a central harbour or lagoon before the last major eruptive episode. This eruption, in the mid-2nd millennium bce (the Minoan eruption), placed according to different data and scholarly approaches between approximately 1650–1500 bce, destroyed the island and buried the prehistoric landscape under volcanic pumice (figure 1).

Figure 1. Minoan eruption pumice deposits above Minoan land surface, see magenta arrow, Megalochori Quarry, Thera.

Source: Photo by Sturt Manning.

Nea (new) Kameni and Palea (old) Kameni are small islands that have formed inside the caldera since the Minoan eruption, associated with mentions by Pliny the Elder (NH 4.12.23) in 19 ce and Cassius Dio (Roman History, Epitome 61.7) in 47 ce, respectively. A large eruption is known in the historic period on Nea Kameni in 726 ce; in addition, another eruption of the close-by underwater Kolumbos volcano (about 4 miles, or 7 km northeast of Thera) occurred in 1649–1650 ce.1 The Minoan volcanic eruption dominates attention: it was one of the largest of the last ten thousand years,2 and its effects on the regional and wider environment and climate, and contemporary southern Aegean societies, may have been substantive.3 The exact date has been much disputed since the mid-1970s ce.4 Scientific sources challenged the conventional archaeological estimate of around 1500 bce that was based on associations between material culture and stylistic influences among the cultures of the Aegean, East Mediterranean, and Egypt. Integrating the archaeological, radiocarbon, tree-ring, ice-core, and other evidence suggests (as of 2023 ce), a final date likely somewhere in the period c. 1611 to c. 1560 bce.5 Inhabited at least from the Late Neolithic, with substantial Early and Middle Bronze Age remains, Thera is best known for the large late Middle Bronze Age through early Late Bronze Age (Late Cycladic I = Late Minoan IA) town excavated at Akrotiri, first under Spyridon Marinatos and subsequently Christos Doumas since 1967 ce.6 At least seventeen other Late Bronze Age sites are known from finds under the pumice, which limits usual archaeological prospection, at various loci around Thera and Therasia.7 Farming, shepherding and arboriculture/viticulture occurred in the landscape of pre-eruption Thera, based on some finds of processing equipment and of stored crop products. In an article in 1939 ce, Marinatos proposed that the Thera volcanic eruption perhaps caused the destruction of the palace civilisation of Minoan Crete to the south.8 However, subsequent work has separated the two episodes. The eruption occurred around the close of the Late Minoan IA cultural period in the southern Aegean and is thus distinct from the subsequent destructions that mark the close of the Late Minoan IB period and bring an end to the New Palace Period on Crete. Nonetheless, the destruction and interruption caused by the massive volcanic eruption, such as the obliteration of a major regional and international port site and a major town and other settlements on Thera, may have had a substantial and longer-lasting impact on Aegean societies (like the Minoan civilisation)—through the loss and then re-orienting of trade routes and wider social, economic, and political connections.9 Thera and its destruction have been regularly linked as a possible inspiration for the Atlantis story, and some have even proposed an association with Exodus. Today, viticulture thrives in its arid climate and light soils. The tree types and crops evident from remains on prehistoric Thera, and the absence, so far, of cisterns or water storage facilities might hint that the climate was a little less arid compared with the recent period.

Prompted by the quarrying of the Minoan pumice on Thera for the construction of the Suez Canal (1859–1869) and minor volcanic activity (1866–1870), Thera attracted scientific and archaeological attention. Excavations in 1866–1867 ce and 1870 ce found evidence of prehistoric remains buried underneath the pumice on Thera and Therasia—although it is likely that an earlier French mission also uncovered some prehistoric remains, as perhaps did Ludwig Ross.10 Serious, sustained and systematic investigation and excavations did not commence until the later 1960s. This work at Akrotiri, southern Thera, has uncovered just part (a little over 1 ha and all or parts of some forty structures) of a large Bronze Age urban site, deserted (in the areas excavated) before the final eruption. Described as the “Pompeii of the Aegean,” well-preserved buildings survive up to two and even three stories.11 This is unparalleled in the prehistoric Aegean and has enabled architectural and spatial analysis of building layouts and human use and circulation through them that can inform us more widely for sites lacking such preservation (especially upper stories). The approximate estimate for the area of the overall town is suggested to be about 20 hectares. Recent geophysical prospection has added information on the settlement and indicated additional areas with architectural remains.12 Even if the area so far uncovered is considered to be a central portion of the town with greater building density, this would still suggest a likely population of at least several thousand people and perhaps even towards ten thousand persons in all, making Thera one of the major and larger towns in the prehistoric southern Aegean. The excavations at Akrotiri provide unique insights into the life of a community c. 1600 bce. Although the population had clearly left the area excavated before the eruption, taking many portable valuables with them, the scale of remains preserved under the pumice is unique for the period. Most dramatic and best known are a splendid series of frescos (wall-paintings) recovered in a number of structures depicting scenes of nature (real and imagined), daily life, and cult.13 Two of the best-known examples are shown in figures 2 and 3.

Figure 2. The Departure Town (often thought to be Akrotiri) from the Fotilla Fresco from the Miniature Fresco, south wall of Room 5 in the West House at Akrotiri, Thera.

Source: Public Domain.

Figure 3. A Saffron Gatherer from a large fresco from the east wall of room 3a of the Xeste 3, Akrotiri.

Source: Public Domain.

Preservation makes these wall-paintings unique in scale for the prehistoric Mediterranean. However, typically (highly) fragmentary wall-paintings are known from several other Aegean and eastern Mediterranean sites through the mid-2nd millennium bce,14 and the Akrotiri examples themselves follow evidence of a rich pictorial tradition evident on Middle Cycladic ceramics of the preceding period at the site.15 Needless to say, these wall-paintings from Thera provide us with the richest source on the visual arts in the 2nd-millennium bce Aegean world. Scenes with females are prominent, especially in the Xeste 3 structure, where there is an intriguing association with the use of saffron (figure 3).16 Considerable scholarly attention has focused on all aspects of the production and interpretation of these images—including issues of identification of the exotic animal species depicted (e.g. the monkeys17) and consequent interpretations. Most remarkable and much discussed is a frieze in miniature style showing ships, towns, and landscapes from the West House (a part shown in figure 2).18 This perhaps represents narrative scenes or episodes that may reflect specific epic stories or cultural tropes. Such complex miniature pictorial representations are known from other contemporary Aegean sites, as evident from a much more fragmentary example recovered at Ayia Irini on Keos.19

The earliest material represented in the excavations at Akrotiri is Late Neolithic (4th millennium bce) and there are rich Early Cycladic and then Middle Cycladic remains found under the last town preserved from the time of the eruption.20 Deep excavations undertaken as part of work preparatory to construction of a new shelter for the site yielded much important information on these earlier phases. The final period at the beginning of the Late Bronze Age highlights close connections with the Minoan civilisation of Crete—through imports, influences in art and architecture, and even a locally produced storage jar (pithos) with a Cretan Linear A inscription.21 How to interpret such indications of “Minoanisation” in the Aegean remains debated.22 Other finds reveal Aegean-wide connections and links farther afield to the East Mediterranean (Cyprus) and the southern Levant/Egypt, marking Thera out as an international port locus.23

A major earthquake damaged the site of Akrotiri before the eruption. The excavation of the site has revealed extensive evidence of organised human demolition of damaged structures, the levelling of debris, and repair and rebuilding across the site. Thus, while the extant structures provide evidence of an early Late Bronze Age town, it is evident that this was a town in reconstruction, versus a normal state, when life was again and permanently interrupted by the volcanic eruption.24 The interval of time between the earthquake and the eruption has been debated, but it appears to represent a period of some years, perhaps even a couple of decades. The situation may be reminiscent of the situation at Pompeii, where the city was still recovering from the effects of the earthquake of 62 ce when destroyed by the eruption of Vesuvius in 79 ce.25 The first stratified sign of the great eruption was a small pumice fall of just a few centimetres. The circumstances around this event likely warned or forced the population present to flee, taking what they could with them. Between the earthquake and then this event, most portable objects of value had been removed. This means that the assemblages of finds left in rooms on the floors may well be highly biased: those things the populace did not, or could not take (or hide), in the period between the earthquake through partial clear-up and then the eruption. A now-famous exception to missing portable items of value is the small gold zoomorphic figurine from a 17th-century bce context in the House of Desks at Akrotiri.26

This animal was originally identified as an ibex, but it is perhaps an Aegean wild goat (agrimi) or even possibly another species. This find and others of prestige objects recently unearthed in the House of Desks, along with the jewellery and other prestige objects conspicuously illustrated in some of the wall-paintings, combine to highlight what must be missing at Akrotiri (as do comparisons with finds from other comparable sites27). This circumstance, and the absence of bodies in any of the excavated areas of Akrotiri, so far, demonstrates that the population had warning and had left. One human skeleton was found, apparently under a collapsed roof, during the 19th-century excavations on Therasia. Whether this death was caused by the earthquake or eruption is unclear, but it might suggest that not all the population necessarily escaped. It remains to be discovered whether the population of Akrotiri escaped the island or were trapped trying to escape, for example at the harbour. Discolouration and evidence of oxidisation on the upper surface of the initial thin pumice fall suggest rainfall and a gap of some time—period unknown, from maybe weeks to even a year or more. The main eruption then followed. This buried parts of the island under up to about 197 feet (60 m) of pumice and the excavations at Akrotiri by about 16 feet (5m) or more of pumice. The enormous scale of the eruption has become evident through study of the volcano’s products as found on the seabed both around Thera and across the Aegean and East Mediterranean region. The total volume of erupted material expressed in terms of dense rock equivalent is placed around or a little over 19 cubic miles (80km3), larger than any eruption in the historic period. Tephra fall in the east Aegean, for example on Kos and Rhodes, of several centimetres or more based on finds in archaeological excavations, was likely sufficient to cause structural damage; and falls of 0.3 inches (1 cm) or more on Crete and areas to the southeast and east likely affected crops and livestock.28 The other major destructive element that has received much speculation is the scale and impacts of the likely tsunami caused by the eruption which may have wrought devastating effects on exposed coastal areas in parts of the southern Aegean (e.g. northern Crete).29

Subsequently, Thera remained uninhabited until likely the 12th century bce (Late Helladic IIIC) when sherds found indicate that Mycenaeans settled briefly in the area of Monolithos,30 a rocky promontory on the east coast of Thera (see Mycenaean civilisation). Thera was then recolonised by Dorians from Laconia,31 perhaps as early as the 9th century bce but more likely in the 8th–7th centuries—a history recounted by Herodotos(IV.145–149). The ancient city of Thera32 occupied a naturally defensible, wind-swept ridge in the south-east with harbours on either side. Inscriptional graffiti found near the site of a (later?) gymnasium have long featured in discussions of homosexuality in ancient Greece—in particular, to support the view that pederasty comprised part of the preparation of youths for initiation as warriors.33 The rock-cut rich Geometric to Classical cemeteries at Sellada and Messavouno associated with the town of ancient Thera signal its prosperity and attest strong connections with Crete and farther afield to the East Mediterranean.34 Burial of infants usually inside a pot is notable.35 There is rich ancient testimony of Thera as the coloniser of Cyrene in Libya.36 This followed a reported drought lasting seven years, and there has been discussion about whether this represents a wider climatic fluctuation affecting the southern Aegean around 630 bce. Herodotos (IV.145–149)37 provides most details (see also Pindar Pyth IV, V). Thera avoided involvement in the Persian Wars and remained independent of Athens until early in the Peloponnesian War. Not allied in 431 bce, Thera appears in the Athenian Tribute List for 429/8 bce, paying three talents, and can be restored into 430/29 bce, suggesting it peacefully (or compliantly) joined the Athenian empire—in stark contrast to nearby Melos.38 From the late 4th century bce, Thera was part of an Islander’s League of southern Aegean islands.39 Thera and this league were part of the Ptolemaic Empire,40 and Thera served as a major Aegean naval base likely as late as the earlier 2nd century bce.41 The city continued to be occupied in the Roman period—the stoa is an early 1st-century ce structure with documented repairs in the mid-2nd century by a wealthy individual named Titus Flavius Kleitosthenes Claudianus—with evidence of settlement through to the Late Roman/Early Byzantine period. The majority of the visible remains today belong to the Hellenistic and Roman periods.

Bibliography

  • Doumas, Christos, ed. Thera and the Aegean World I, II. London: Thera and the Aegean World, 1978–1980.
  • Doumas, Christos G. Thera: Pompeii of the Ancient Aegean. London: Thames and Hudson, 1984.
  • Doumas, Christos G. The Wall-Paintings of Thera. Athens, Greece: The Thera Foundation, Petros M. Nomikos, 1992.
  • Doumas, Christos G., Clairy Palyvou, Aanatasia Devetzi, and Christos Bouliotis. Akrotiri, Thera 17th century BC: a cosmopolitan town 3500 years ago. Athens, Greece: Society for the Promotion of Studies on Prehistoric Thera, 2015.
  • Friedrich, Walter L. Santorini: Volcano, Natural History, Mythology. Aarhus, Denmark: Aarhus University Press, 2009.
  • Hoepfner, Wolfram, ed. Das Dorische Thera V: Stadtgeschichte und Kultstätten am nördlichen Stadtrand, Schriften des Seminars für Klassische Archäologie der Freien Universität Berlin. Berlin, Germany: Mann, 1997.
  • Manning, Sturt. A Test of Time: The Volcano of Thera and the Chronology and History of the Aegean and East Mediterranean in the Mid-Second Millennium BC. Oxford, UK: Oxbow Books, 1999.
  • Manning, Sturt W. “Eruption of Thera/Santorini.” In The Oxford Handbook of The Bronze Age Aegean (ca. 3000–1000 BC), edited by E. H. Cline, 457–474. New York, NY: Oxford University Press, 2010.
  • Marinatos, Spyridon. Excavations at Thera I–VII. Athens, Greece: Archaeological Society at Athens, 1968–1976.
  • Morgan, Lyvia. The Miniature Wall Paintings of Thera: A Study in Aegean Culture and Iconography. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 1988.
  • Nikolakopoulou, Irene. Akrotiri, Thera: Middle Bronze Age Pottery and Stratigraphy. The Archaeological Society at Athens Library 318. Athens, Greece: The Archaeological Society at Athens, 2019.
  • Palyvou, Clairy. Akrotiri Thera: An Architecture of Affluence 3,500 Years Old. Philadelphia, PA: INSTAP Academic Press, 2005.
  • Pfuhl, Ernst. “Der archaische Friedhof am Stadtberge von Thera.” Mitteilungen des deutschen archäologischen Instituts: Athenische Abteilung 28 (1903): 1–288.
  • Sherratt, Susan, ed. The Wall Paintings of Thera. Proceedings of the First International Symposium, Petros M. Nomikos Conference Centre, Thera, Hellas, 30 August–4 September 1997. Piraeus, Greece: Petros M. Nomikos and the Thera Foundation, 2000.
  • Sotirakopoulou, Panayiota I. Akrotiri, Thera: The Neolithic and Early Bronze Age According to the Pottery. Athens, Greece: Archaeological Society of Athens, 1999.
  • von Gaertringen, Hiller, Friedrich Dörpfeld, Hans Dragendorff and Paul Wilski. Thera I-IV. Untersuchungen, Vermessungen und Ausgrabungen in den Jahren 1895–1902. Berlin, Germany: Reimer, 1899–1909.

Notes

  • 1. Walter L. Friedrich, Fire in the Sea. The Santorini Volcano: Natural History and the Legend of Atlantis, trans. Alexander R. McBirney (Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 2000); Walter L. Friedrich, Santorini: Volcano, Natural History, Mythology (Aarhus, Denmark: Aarhus University Press, 2009); and Walter L. Friedrich, J. Richard Wilson, Annette Højen Sørensen, and Samson Katsipis, “Synchronous Pumice Mantle Found on Santorini Volcano,” International Journal of Geosciences 12 (2021): 329–346.

  • 2. E. N. Johnston, R. S. J. Sparks, J. C. Phillips, and S. Carey. “Revised Estimates for the Volume of the Late Bronze Age Minoan Eruption, Santorini, Greece,” Journal of the Geological Society, London 171 (2014): 583–590.

  • 3. Jan Driessen and Colin F. Macdonald, The Troubled Island: Minoan Crete before and after the Santorini Eruption, Aegaeum 17 (Liège, Belgium: Université de Liège and University of Texas at Austin, 1997); F. W. McCoy and G. Heiken, “The Late Bronze Age Explosive Eruption of Thera (Santorini), Greece: Regional and Local effects,” in Volcanic Hazards and Disasters in Human Antiquity, Geological Society of America Special Paper 345, ed. Floyd W. McCoy and Grant Heiken (Boulder, CO: Geological Society of America, 2000), 43–70; Anita Cadoux, Bruno Scaillet, Slimane Bekki, Clive Oppenheimer and Timothy H. Druitt, “Stratospheric Ozone Destruction by the Bronze-Age Minoan Eruption (Santorini Volcano, Greece),” Scientific Reports 5 (2015): 12243; and Jan Driessen, “The Santorini Eruption. An Archaeological Investigation of Its Distal Impacts on Minoan Crete,” Quaternary International 499 (2019): 195–204.

  • 4. Sturt W. Manning, A Test of Time: The Volcano of Thera and the Chronology and History of the Aegean and East Mediterranean in the Mid-Second Millennium BC (Oxford: Oxbow Books, 1999); Sturt W. Manning, “Eruption of Thera/Santorini,” in The Oxford Handbook of The Bronze Age Aegean (ca. 3000–1000 BC), ed. Eric H. Cline (New York: Oxford University Press, 2010), 457–474; and Charlotte L. Pearson, Peter W. Brewer, David Brown, Timothy J. Heaton, Gregory W. L. Hodgins, A. J. Timothy Jull, Todd Lange, and Matthew W. Salzer, “Annual Radiocarbon Record Indicates 16th Century BCE Date for the Thera Eruption,” Science Advances 4, no. 8 (2018): aar8241 .

  • 5. Sturt W. Manning, Lukas Wacker, Ulf Büntgen, Christopher Bronk Ramsey, Michael W. Dee, Bernd Kromer, Brita Lorentzen, and Willy Tegel, “Radiocarbon Offsets and Old World Chronology as Relevant to Mesopotamia, Egypt, Anatolia and Thera (Santorini),” Scientific Reports 10 (2020): 13785; Sturt W. Manning, “Second Intermediate Period Date for the Thera (Santorini) Eruption and Historical Implications,” PLoS ONE 17, no. 9 (2022): e0274835; and Charlotte Pearson, Kostas Sbonias, Iris Tzachili, and Timothy J. Heaton, “Olive Shrub Buried on Therasia Supports a Mid-16th Century BCE Date for the Thera Eruption,” Scientific Reports 13 (2023): 6994.

  • 6. Spyridon Marinatos, Excavations at Thera I–VII (Athens: Archaeological Society at Athens, 1968–1976); Christos Doumas, ed., Thera and the Aegean World I, II (London: Thera and the Aegean World, 1978–1980); Christos G. Doumas, Thera: Pompeii of the ancient Aegean (London: Thames and Hudson, 1984); Christos G. Doumas, Clairy Palyvou, Aanastasia Devetzi and Christos Bouliotis, Akrotiri, Thera 17th Century BC: A Cosmopolitan Town 3500 Years Ago (Athens: Society for the Promotion of Studies on Prehistoric Thera, 2015); and Irene Nikolakopoulou, Akrotiri, Thera: Middle Bronze Age Pottery and Stratigraphy, The Archaeological Society at Athens Library 318 (Athens, Greece: The Archaeological Society at Athens, 2019).

  • 7. Jerome W. Sperling, Thera and Therasia (Athens, Greece: Athens Technical Organization, 1973); Iris Tzachili, “Excavations on Thera and Therasia in the 19th Century: A Chronicle,” Journal of Mediterranean Archaeology 18 (2005): 231–257; Anaya Sarpaki, “Akrotiri, Thera: Glimpses of the Countryside as Seen through the Archaeological and Bioarchaeological Data. Whispers of a Dialogue,” in Country in the city: agricultural functions of protohistoric urban settlements (Aegean and Western Mediterranean), ed. Dominique Garcia, Raphaël Orgeolet, Maia Pomadère and Julien Zurbach (Oxford, UK: Oxbow Books, 2019), 77–92; and Marisa Marthari, “Raos and Akrotiri: Memory and Identity in LC I/LM I Thera as Reflected in Settlement Patterns and Ceramic Production,” in Μνήμη‎ / Mneme. Past and Memory in the Aegean Bronze Age: Proceedings of the 17th International Aegean Conference, University of Udine, Department of Humanities and Cultural Heritage, Ca’ Foscari University of Venice, Department of Humanities, 17-21 April 2018, Aegaeum 43, ed. Elisabetta Borgna, Ilaria Caloi, Filippo Maria Carinci, and Robert Laffineur (Leuven and Liège, Belgium: Peeters, 2019), 135–143.

  • 8. Spyridon Marinatos, “The Volcanic Destruction of Minoan Crete,” Antiquity 13 (1939): 425–439.

  • 9. Carl Knappett, Ray Rivers, and Tim S. Evans, “The Theran Eruption and Minoan Palatial Collapse: New Interpretations Gained from Modelling the Maritime Network,” Antiquity 85 (2011): 1008–1023.

  • 10. Sperling, Thera; Tzachili, “Excavations”; Sarpaki, “Akrotiri, Thera”; Marthari, “Raos and Akrotiri.”

  • 11. Clairy Palyvou, Akrotiri Thera: An Architecture of Affluence 3,500 Years Old (Philadelphia, PA: INSTAP Academic Press, 2005); and Clairy Palyvou, Akrotiri, Thera. The Architecture of the West House (Athens, Greece: Melissa Publishing House, 2019).

  • 12. Immo Trinks, M. Wallner, M. Kucera, G. Verhoeven, J. Torrejón Valdelmoar, K. Löcker, E. Nau, C. Sevara, L. Aldrian, E. Neubauer, and M. Klein, “Documenting Bronze Age Akrotiri on Thera Using Laser Scanning, Image-Based Modelling and Geophysical Prospection,” The International Archives of the Photogrammetry, Remote Sensing and Spatial Information Sciences 42-2, no. W3 (2017): 631–638.

  • 13. Christos G. Doumas, The Wall-Paintings of Thera (Athens, Greece: The Thera Foundation, Petros M. Nomikos, 1992); and Susan Sherratt, ed., The Wall Paintings of Thera. Proceedings of the First International Symposium, Petros M. Nomikos Conference Centre, Thera, Hellas, 30 August-4 September 1997 (Piraeus, Greece: Petros M. Nomikos and The Thera Foundation, 2000).

  • 14. Sara A. Immerwahr, Aegean Painting in the Bronze Age (University Park, PA: Pennsylvania State University Press, 1990); Andreas G. Vlachopoulos, “Wall Paintings,” in A Companion to the Archaeology of Early Greece and the Mediterranean, Volume 1, Blackwell Companions to the Ancient World, ed. Irene S. Lemos and Antonios Kotsonas (Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, 2020), 407–432; Peter Pfälzner, “The Qatna wall paintings and the formation of Aegeo-Syrian art,” in Contact: From Mesopotamia to the Mediterranean in the Second Millennium B.C., ed. Joan Aruz, Sarah B. Graff and Yelena Rakic (New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 2013), 200–213.

  • 15. Angelia Papagiannopoulou, “From Pots to Pictures: Middle Cycladic Figurative Art from Akrotiri, Thera,” in Horizon. Ορίζων‎: A Colloquium on the Prehistory of the Cyclades, ed. Neil Brodie, Jenny Doole, Giorgos Gavalas, and Colin Renfrew (Cambridge, UK: McDonald Institute for Archaeological Research, 2008), 433–449 ; and Angelia Papagiannopoulou, “The Beginnings of an Island Narration. Pictorial Pottery and Wall Paintings of the Second Millennium BC,” in ΧΡΩΣΤΗΡΕΣ‎/Paintbrushes. Wall-painting and Vase-painting of the Second Millennium BC in Dialogue: Proceedings of the International Conference on Aegean Iconography held at Akrotiri, Thera, 24-26 May 2013, ed. Andreas G. Vlachopoulos (Athens, Greece: University of Ioannina and Hellenic Ministry of Culture and Sports – Archaeological Receipts Fund, 2018), 163–182.

  • 16. Bernice R. Jones, “A New Reading of the Fresco Program and the Ritual in Xeste 3, Thera,” in Metaphysis: Ritual, Myth and Symbolism in the Aegean Bronze Age. Proceedings of the 15th International Aegean Conference, Vienna, Institute for Oriental and European Archaeology, Aegean and Anatolia Department, Austrian Academy of Sciences and Institute of Classical Archaeology, University of Vienna, 22-25 April 2014, Aegaeum 39, ed. Eva Alram-Stern, Fritz Blakolmer, Sigrid Deger-Jalkotzy, Robert Laffineur and Jörg Weilhartner (Leuven and Liege, Belgium: Peeters, 2016), 365–373; Emily Simons, “Thinking about Thera: A Re-Interpretation of the Wall Paintings in Xeste 3,” Chronika 4 (2014): 40–50.

  • 17. Marie N. Pareja, Tracie McKinney, Jessica A. Mayhew, Joanna M. Setchell, Stephen D. Nash, and Ray Heaton, “A New Identification of the Monkeys Depicted in a Bronze Age Wall Painting from Akrotiri, Thera,” Primates 61 (2020): 159–168; and cf. Bernardo Urbani and Dionisios Youlatos, “Occam’s Razor, Archeoprimatology, and the ‘Blue’ Monkeys of Thera: A Reply to Pareja et al. (2020),” Primates 61 (2020), 757–765.

  • 18. Lyvia Morgan, The Miniature Wall Paintings of Thera: A Study in Aegean Culture and Iconography (Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 1988); Sarah P. Morris, “A Tale of Two Cities: The Miniature Frescoes from Thera and the Origins of Greek Poetry,” American Journal of Archaeology 93 (1989): 511–535; Thomas F. Strasser, “Location and Perspective in the Theran Flotilla Fresco,” Journal of Mediterranean Archaeology 23 (2010), 3–26.

  • 19. Lyvia Morgan, Keos XI: Wall Paintings and Social Context: The Northeast Bastion at Ayia Irini (Philadelphia, PA: INSTAP Press, 2020).

  • 20. Panayiota I. Sotirakopoulou, “The Early Bronze Age Stone Figurines from Akrotiri on Thera and their Significance for the Early Cycladic Settlement,” Annual of the British School at Athens 93 (1998): 107–165; and P. I. Sotirakopoulou, Akrotiri, Thera: The Neolithic and Early Bronze Age According to the Pottery (Athens, Greece: Archaeological Society of Athens, 1999)

  • 21. Artemis Karnava and Irene Nikolakopoulou, “A Pithos Fragment with a Linear A Inscription from Akrotiri, Thera,” Studi Micenei ed Egeo-Anatolici 47 (2005): 213–225.

  • 22. Cyprian Broodbank, “Minoanisation,” Proceedings of the Cambridge Philological Society 50 (2004), 46–91.

  • 23. Christos G. Doumas, “Akrotiri et le commerce à longue distance,” Pasiphae 12 (2018): 59–67.

  • 24. Stephanie Martin, “Abandoning Akrotiri (Thera): A Comparative Model Approach to Relocation Strategies after Volcanic Eruptions,” in Cycladic Archaeology and Research: New Approaches and Discoveries, ed. Erica Angliker and John Tully (Oxford, UK: Archaeopress, 2018), 27–41; and K. J. Evans and F. W. McCoy, “Precursory Eruptive Activity and Implied Cultural Responses to the Late Bronze Age (LBA) Eruption of Thera (Santorini, Greece),” Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research 397 (2020): 106868.

  • 25. Penelope M. Allison, Pompeian Households: An Analysis of the Material Culture (Los Angeles, LA: Cotsen Institute of Archaeology, University of California, Los Angeles, 2004); and Joanne Berry, The Complete Pompeii (New York, NY: Thames & Hudson, 2007).

  • 26. Thanos Pantazis, Andreas G. Karydas, Christos Doumas, Andreas Vlachopoulos, Petros Nomikos, and Mark Dinsmore, “X-Ray Fluorescence Analysis of a Gold Ibex and Other Artifacts from Akrotiri,” in Metron: Measuring the Aegean Bronze Age. Proceedings of the 9th International Aegean Conference / 9e Rencontre égéenne internationale, New Haven, Yale University, 18–21 April 2002, Aegaeum 24, ed. Karen Polinger Foster and Robert Laffineur (Liège, Belgium: Université de Liège, Histoire de l’art et archéologie de la Grèce antique and University of Texas at Austin, TX, Program in Aegean Scripts and Prehistory, 2003), 155–160; and Marco Masseti, “A zoomorphic gold figurine from the Late Bronze Age on the island of Thera (Santorini), Greece,” in Archaeozoology of the Near East VIII: Actes des huitièmes Rencontres internationales d'Archéozoologie de l'Asie du Sud-Ouest et des régions adjacentes. Proceedings of the Eighth International Symposium on the Archaeozoology of Southwestern Asia and Adjacent Areas, Lyon, June 28–July 1, 2006, Volume II, Travaux de la Maison de l’Orient et de la Méditerranée 49, ed. Emmanuelle Vila, Lionel Gourichon, Alice M. Choyke and Hijlke Buitenhuis (Lyon, France: Maison de l’Orient et de la Méditerranée, 2008), 553–559.

  • 27. Marie-Louise Nosch and Robert Laffineur, eds., Kosmos: Jewellery, Adornment and Textiles in the Aegean Bronze Age. Proceedings of the 13th International Aegean Conference/13e Rencontre égéenne internationale, University of Copenhagen, Danish National Research Foundation's Centre for Textile Research, 21–26 April 2010, Aegaeum 33 (Leuven and Liege, Belgium: Peeters, 2012).

  • 28. Russell J. Blong, Volcanic Hazards: A Sourcebook on the Effects of Eruptions (Sydney, Australia: Academic Press Australia, 1984). See also Driessen and Macdonald, Troubled Island; McCoy and Heiken, “Late Bronze Age”; Cadoux et al., “Stratospheric Ozone Destruction”; Driessen, “The Santorini Eruption.”

  • 29. P. Nomikou, T. H. Druitt, C. Hübscher, T. A. Mather, M. Paulatto, L. M. Kalnins, K. Kelfoun, D. Papanikolaou, K. Bejelou, D. Lampridou, et al., “Post-Eruptive Flooding of Santorini Caldera and Implications for Tsunami Generation,” Nature Communications 7 (2016): 13332; and Vasıf Şahoğlu, Johannes H. Sterba, Timor Katz, Ümit Çayır, Ümit Gündoğan, Natalia Tyuleneva, İrfan Tuğcu, Max Bichler, Hayat Erkanal, Beverly N. Goodman-Tchernov, “Volcanic ash, victims, and tsunami debris from the Late Bronze Age Thera eruption discovered at Çeşme-Bağlararası (Turkey),” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 119 (2021), e2114213118.

  • 30. Andreas G. Vlachopoulos, “A Late Mycenaean Journey from Thera to Naxos: The Cyclades in the Twelfth Century BC,” in Horizon. Ορίζων‎: A Colloquium on the Prehistory of the Cyclades, ed. Neil Brodie, Jenny Doole, Giorgos Gavalas, and Colin Renfrew (Cambridge, UK: McDonald Institute for Archaeological Research, 2008), 479–491.

  • 31. Irad Malkin, Myth and Territory in the Spartan Mediterranean (Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 1994), chap. 3.

  • 32. Hiller von Gaertringen, Friedrich Dörpfeld, Hans Dragendorf, and Paul Wilski, Thera I-IV. Untersuchungen, Vermessungen und Ausgrabungen in den Jahren 1895-1902 (Berlin, Germany: Reimer, 1899–1909); Ernst Pfuhl, “Der archaische Friedhof am Stadtberge von Thera,” Mitteilungen des deutschen archäologischen Instituts: Athenische Abteilung 28 (1903), 1–288; Wolfram Hoepfner, ed., Thera V: Stadtgeschichte und Kultstätten am nördlichen Stadtrand, Schriften des Seminars für Klassische Archäologie der Freien Universität Berlin (Berlin, Germany: Mann, 1997); Friedrich Hiller von Gaertringen, ed., Inscriptiones Graecae 12(3): Inscriptiones Symes Teutlussae Teli Nisyri Astypalaeae Anaphes Therae et Therasiae Pholegandri Meli Cimoli. Reprint (Berlin, Germany: De Gruyter, 1978); and Mogens Herman Hansen and Thomas Heine Nielsen, eds., An Inventory of Archaic and Classical Poleis, no. 527 (Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press, 2004).

  • 33. See, for example, Eva Cantarella, Bisexuality in the Ancient World, trans. Cormac Ó Cuilleanáin (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1992), 7–8, 22–27; William Armstrong Percy III, Pederasty and Pedagogy in Archaic Greece (Urbana, IL: University of Illinois Press, 1996), 31–35; and W. A. Percy III. “Reconsiderations about Greek Homosexualities,” Journal of Homosexuality 49 (2005): 13–61.

  • 34. Olga Kaklamani, “Early Iron Age Cyclades through the Funerary Evidence,” in Regional Stories towards a new perception of the early Greek world. Acts of an International Symposium in honour of Professor Jan Bouzek, Volos 18–21 June 2015, ed. Ainian M. Ainan, A. Alexandridou, and X. Charalambidou (Volos, Greece: University of Thessaly Press, 2017), 208–211.

  • 35. Olga Kaklamani, “Pot Burials in Ancient Thera: The Presence of Infants in the Cemeteries of the Ancient City from 8th to 6th Century BC,” in Mortuary Variability and Social Diversity in Ancient Greece: Studies on Ancient Greek Death and Burial, ed. Nikolas Dimakis and Tamara M. Dijkstra (Oxford, UK: Archaeopress, 2020), 88–101.

  • 36. Michel Austin, “The Greeks in Libya,” in Greek Colonization: an Account of Greek Colonies and Other Settlements Overseas, Volume 2, ed. Gocha R. Tsetskhladze (Leiden, the Netherlands: Brill, 2008), 187–217.

  • 37. David Asheri, Alan Lloyd and Aldo Corcella, A Commentary on Herodotos Books I–IV, ed. Oswyn Murray and Alfonso Moreno, with a contribution by Maria Brosius, trans. Barbara Graziosi, Matteo Rossetti, Carlotta Dus, and Vanessa Cassato (Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press, 2007).

  • 38. Russell Meiggs, The Athenian Empire (Oxford, UK: Clarendon Press, 1972).

  • 39. Christy Constantakopoulou, Aegean Interactions: Delos and Its Networks in the Third Century (Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press, 2017).

  • 40. Roger S. Bagnell, The Administration of the Ptolemaic Possessions outside Egypt (Leiden, the Netherlands: Brill, 1976).

  • 41. Rolf Strootman, “The Ptolemaic Sea Empire,” in Empires of the Sea, ed. Rolf Strootman, Floris van den Eijnde and Roy van Wijk (Leiden, the Netherlands: Brill, 2019), 113–152.