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H. Kathryn Lomas

Teanum Apulum (modrtn S. Paolo), in central Italy, a *Daunian city, originally called Teate. It was on the borders between Daunian and Frentanian territory and shows signs of Oscanization (see OSCANS) by the 4th century bce, notably in issues of coins with *Oscan legends. It fought against Rome in the Second Samnite War (see SAMNIUM), but became an ally in 318 bce and remained loyal thereafter. The Daunian city was fortified with an 11-km. (7-mi.) earth rampart and is similar to *Arpi in size and structure. A Roman aqueduct and temple have been discovered.



Elizabeth Robinson

Larinum (modern Larino, Molise) was a city located on the eastern edge of Samnium on the southern border of the territory of the Frentani, and on the northern border of Daunia (see Daunians) (Fig. 1). The ethnic affiliation of the city is disputed by ancient authors (Caes. B Civ. 1.23; Livy 22.18.8, 22.24.1, 27.43.10; Plin. HN 3.11.103, 3.11.105; Pompon. 2.65; Ptol. Geog. 3.1; Steph. Byz. 413 lines 16–17), but it is clear that the pre-Roman inhabitants of Larinum spoke Oscan and shared cultural traits with their various neighbors.The earliest evidence of human activity at Larinum is a series of prehistoric tombs dating to the 9th centurybce. Later, in the 7th or 6th centurybce, a defensive earthwork agger and fossa may have been built at the site. Traces of the first stone houses at Larinum likely date as early as the 5th centurybce, and a new fortification wall with some stretches built in polygonal masonry was erected in the late 4th or early 3rd centurybce.