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William Moir Calder, John Manuel Cook, Charlotte Roueché, and Antony Spawforth

City at the mouth of the river Caÿster on the west coast of *Asia Minor, which rivalled and finally displaced *Miletus, and owing to the silting up of both harbours since antiquity has itself been displaced by Izmir (*Smyrna) as the seaport of the *Maeander valley. Ephesus was founded by Ionian colonists led by Androclus son of *Codrus. It had little maritime activity before Hellenistic times, when it was oligarchic in temper and open to indigenous influences. The city maintained itself against the *Cimmerians and also *Lydia until its capture by *Croesus, who contributed to the construction of the great temple of Artemis. Under *Persia it shared the fortunes of the other coastal cities; it was a member of the *Delian League, but revolted c. 412 bce and sided with Sparta. The Archaic Artemisium, burnt down in 356 bce, was rebuilt in the 4th century bce, the Ephesians refusing *Alexander (3) the Great's offer to fund the cost (Strabo 14.