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Cornelius Sulla Felix, Lucius, dictator and consul, 138–78 BCE  

Alexandra Eckert

Sulla (138–78 bce) is a pivotal figure in Roman history. He was the first to inflict civil war on his fellow citizens by marching his army on Rome twice, in 88 and 83/82 bce. During the war against King Mithridates (87–85 bce), he plundered Greek sanctuaries, sacked Athens, destroyed the Piraeus, and raided Boeotia. He also imposed punitive indemnities on the cities of the province of Asia. Sulla returned to Italy in the spring of 83 bce and conquered Rome for a second time in 82 bce. As victor in the civil war, he was appointed dictator, assumed the title Felix and carried out a programme of constitutional reform. Yet, Sulla delegitimized his victory by unprecedented post-war violence. His punitive measures encompassed not only the proscriptions which were directed primarily against wealthy members of the Roman elite, but also mass executions, arbitrary assassinations by his marauding soldiers, and collective punishment of Italian municipalities which affected all strata of Roman society. The 70s and 60s bce saw efforts to repeal Sulla’s legislation and to cope with the effects of his punitive measures.

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Mithridates II, king of Parthia, 125/121–91 BCE  

Josef Wiesehöfer

Mithridates (Mihrdād) (125/121–91bce), son (an uncertain relationship) of his predecessor Artabanus I and grandson of Priapatius, was given the epithet “the Great” already in antiquity because of his important deeds (Iust. 42.2.3).1 After Artabanus’s unexpected death, Mithridates, despite Parthia’s latent problems with the Scythae (Sakas) in the east, had first to devote much attention to Babylonia. This region was then—after the defeat of King Hyspaosines of Characene—plagued by Arab raids about which the so-called Astronomical Diaries provide information.2 In the following years, Mithridates and his generals successfully (Iust. 42.2.4f.; cf. Strab. 11.9.2) waged war with the Guti (perhaps the Tochari) in Bactria (Sachs, Hunger 1996, no. -118 A20–22, pp. 326f.). Mithridates’s monetary production of those years seems to point to those efforts to secure the eastern border of the empire. For 121bce, a Chinese delegation to the Parthian court is attested (Shiji 123, 3169); it was followed by other mutual contacts. Possibly in 111bce a concluded campaign against Ḫabigalbat is mentioned (Sachs, Hunger 1996, no.

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dictator  

Frederik Juliaan Vervaet

Soon after the establishment of the Republic (traditionally dated to 509 bce), an aristocratic democracy marked by collegial rule and limitation of tenure, the Romans introduced the office of dictator, initially to create an additional and ranking military command whenever required. Appointed by the chief annual magistrate by decree of the Senate, the dictator had no equal colleague, the main constraints on his authority being his official commission as defined by the Senate and the obligation to abdicate promptly following the completion of this specific task. From 363 to 301 bce especially, the dictatorship became a frequent fixture of the Republican machinery of state, thereafter being used only infrequently until the Second Punic War, which saw another spate of appointments. Rather than being created to deal with external or internal emergencies, dictators were mostly appointed according to the exigencies of the moment to execute one or more routine tasks ranging from military commands to the conduct of obscure religious rituals normally undertaken by consuls or praetors. Significantly, the office played an important and constructive role in the resolution of the so-called struggle of the orders and the gradual shaping of the Republican polity. Throughout the Early and Middle Republic, the Senate retained close control over the dictator and his activities. After the Second Punic War, as Roman power rapidly expanded across the Mediterranean and prorogation of consular and praetorian power became the norm, the office of dictator lapsed completely. The age of civil war (88–30 bce) saw first Sulla and then Caesar revive the dictatorship, albeit by means of constitutive laws and in vastly enhanced and autocratic form.