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prayer, Jewish  

Stefan C. Reif

Although some of the inspiration for later Jewish prayers undoubtedly came from the ancient Near East and the early books of the Hebrew Bible, there was at that early period of development little connection between the formal liturgy, as represented by the Temple cult, and the spontaneous entreaties of the individual. During the Second Temple period, the two methods of expression began to coalesce, and the literature included among the Dead Sea Scrolls testifies to the recitation of regular prayers at fixed times. The Talmudic rabbis laid down instructions for some statutory prayers, such as the shema‘ and the ‘amidah, and these gradually formed the basis of what became the synagogal liturgy.


Temples of Sant’Omobono  

Nicola Terrenato

Fieldwork around the church of Sant’Omobono in the Forum Boarium has produced some of the most remarkable discoveries illustrating the early phases of the city of Rome. Archaeological remains were accidentally exposed in 1937 during the Fascist overhaul of the neighborhood, when the old buildings surrounding the church were demolished. In the process of reinforcing the foundations of Sant’Omobono, the corner of an Archaic temple podium was exposed, together with remarkable architectural terracottas. Rescue excavations showed the presence of a much larger temple site, so the area was spared and left open for future investigations. Excavations at Sant’Omobono were conducted in the 1950s, 1960s, 1970s, 1980s, 1990s, and 2010s by a variety of archaeologists, employing different methodologies and approaches. None of these investigations had been published in full by 2015, although a multitude of conflicting articles appeared. As a result, understanding of the sequence has always remained problematic and hotly debated. The main phases, as they can be reconstructed on the basis of recent work, are summarized in chronological order in the following sections.



John R. Senseney

Modern distinctions between architecture and engineering do not readily apply to the work of architects throughout Greek and Roman history. In the design of buildings, architects’ roles and approaches changed over time. In the Classical period, Greek architects’ design specifications may have determined the forms of individual elements. According to an alternative view, the on-site nature of architects’ work may have coincided with a design process that overlapped with construction, in which masons contributed to design in a collaborative way. Beyond architects’ traditional responsibility for supplying full-scale plastic and graphic models, design by way of reduced-scale drawing was well established by the Hellenistic period. The Imperial era exploitation of Roman concrete gave architects a greater ability to project volumes through reduced-scale drawing.

Alongside career architects, amateur architects from the social elite oversaw projects in service to their communities or for their own leisure or use. In the Archaic period, architects of monumental Greek temples were responsible for the building phases and machines used in the construction process, with an increasing focus on formal design during the Classical period. Architects travelling in pursuit of commissions spread architectural ideas and influences throughout antiquity. Architects of Ionian works may have arrived in Italy as early as the Archaic period. In the Middle Republic, the presence of Greek architects in Roman environs is reflected in textual sources as well as in the use of Greek marble, building types, and spatial layouts. Similarly, the Roman architect Cossutius worked in Hellenistic contexts during this same period.


Pantheon, reception of  

Elizabeth R. Macaulay

The Pantheon, considered to be one of the greatest Roman buildings ever, was an architectural palimpsest that ancient and post-antique architects have reinterpreted, especially the combination of the dome and temple façade.The Pantheon is considered one of the greatest Roman buildings ever erected (figure 1). Its soaring dome, remarkable interior, and porch with a double pediment have resulted in wide-ranging receptions of its architecture. While scholars debate the origin and meaning of the double pediment and the date of the Pantheon, such academic debates were not a primary consideration for later architects, who viewed the Pantheon as an architectural palimpsest. The Pantheon’s unique soaring dome and oculus created a remarkable architectural interior, and the monumental porch served as an impressive and imposing entrance. The combination of a dome and porch would be replicated in countless buildings. Due to its conversion into a church in 609 or 610 .


Campus Martius  

Penelope Davies

A spacious tract of land outside the original pomerium, often known simply as the Campus, the Campus Martius comprised most of the low-lying plain bounded by the Tiber on the west, the Pincian and Quirinal hills to the east, and the Capitoline hill to the south. Prone to flooding from the river, it was also traversed by streams such as the amnis Petronia, and watered by natural springs. Dedicated to the war god, it took its name from the Altar of Mars. The Campus occupied a special place in Rome’s mythic past, for, according to one tradition, at its lowest point, the palus Caprae, Romulus was enveloped in a dark cloud in front of his assembled troops and lifted to the heavens in apotheosis. Tradition also held that toward the end of the regal period Tarquinius Superbus either took possession of the grassy plain or received it as an honour; upon his expulsion, it was restored to the people as public pasture, ager publicus.


Caesarea (2) in Palaestina  

Joseph Patrich

Caesarea Maritima was founded (22–10/9 bce) by Herod (1) the Great. Named after Caesar Augustus, Herod’s patron, it served as the administrative capital and main port of his kingdom of Judaea, later the Roman province of Syria-Palaestina. Herod’s building projects are described in detail by Flavius Josephus (AJ 15.331–341; BJ 1.408–415). Many of its structures have been uncovered in the archaeological excavations carried out at the site since the 1950s. In 71 ce, Caesarea became a Roman colony and Latin became the official language. A praetorium for the financial procurator provinciae was erected there by Vespasian and Titus in 77/78 ce. In the 2nd–4th centuries it was a prosperous city where Gentiles, Jews, Samaritans, and Christians lived side by side. It was a centre of intellectual activity.Caesarea (2) in Palaestina (Qisri, Qisrin in the Rabbinic sources), also known as Caesarea Maritima, was founded (22–10/9bce) by .


medicine, Mesopotamia  

John Z. Wee

Cuneiform medical manuscripts are found in large numbers, mostly from 1st-millennium bce sites throughout ancient Mesopotamia. Included in the therapeutic tradition are pharmacological glossaries, herbal recipes with plant, mineral, and animal ingredients, and healing incantations and rituals. A Diagnostic Handbook created at the end of the 2nd millennium bce maps out a blueprint for medical practice that sketches out how a healer progresses in his knowledge of the sickness—initially interpreting bodily signs in ways reminiscent of omen divination, and only later arriving at a settled diagnostic verdict and treatment of the kind depicted in the therapeutic tradition. Mesopotamian aetiologies focused on malevolent agents external to the body, encouraging concerns for contagion, prophylaxis, and sanitation, while omitting significant roles for dietetics and exercise aimed at rectifying internal imbalances. Operative surgery was limited, because of the inadequacy of available analgesics and antiseptics. Suppliants seeking a cure visited temples of the healing goddess Gula in the cities of Isin and Nippur, while, among the professions, the “magician” and the “physician” were most associated with medical practice. After the 5th century bce, Calendar Texts and other astrological genres linked various ingredients to each zodiacal name, indicating certain days when a particular ingredient would become medically efficacious.



Kim Shelton

Nemea is a fertile upland valley in southern Corinthia where the Sanctuary of Zeus and its panhellenic festival with athletic games was founded in the 6th century bce. After a period of disruption in the Classical period, when the games were removed and celebrated in Argos, the later 4th century bce saw a renewal of the games at the site which underwent a substantial building program with a new temple, stadium, and facilities for athletes and festival participants. A hero shrine in the form of a tumulus was constructed in the southwestern part of the sanctuary in the Iron Age and was rebuilt with a stone perimeter wall in the late 4th century. The Nemea valley was occupied and farmed from prehistory through the medieval period when the pagan sanctuary was converted for Christian worship with the construction of a basilica from the spolia of the Temple of Zeus.Nemea (.



Avner Ecker

After the Babylonian exile, Jews returned to their city under Cyrus I and rebuilt their temple in Jerusalem in 539 bce. Jerusalem eventually became the only monotheistic centre within the Greco-Roman world. Most Jews regarded their temple as the only temple to Yahweh. Three annual pilgrimages from the entire Mediterranean basin marked the city’s life cycle. The temple grew rich through donations, tithes, and a voluntary tax given by Jews. The city of the Second Temple Period was run according to a set of Jewish religious laws. Antiochus IV attempted to mould it into a Greek-style polis and instigated the Maccabean revolt (167–160 bce). The riches of the temple allured Hellenistic and Roman rulers alike, whereas the unique religious character of Jewish Jerusalem posed continuous political challenges. Indeed, the city was besieged, and the temple occasionally plundered by a succession of Hellenistic and Roman conquerors. Jerusalem and the temple flourished under Herod and his dynasts (Plin. HN 5.



Eyal Regev

Sadducees (צדוקים, Σαδδоυκαῖоς, Saddoukaioi), a religious and political group within Judaism attested in Judaea from the 2nd century bce to the 1st century ce. The Sadducees are described by Josephus and are mentioned in the New Testament and in rabbinic texts that pertain to the Second Temple period, usually as opponents of the Pharisees in matters concerning law or theology. They held legal views stricter than those of the Pharisees. Many of the high priests from Herod’s reign to 70 ce were Sadducees.The name of the Sadducees probably derives from the name of the high-priestly house of Zadok. Presumably, the Sadducees identified themselves as the successors of these ancient high priests. It is uncertain, however, whether any of the Sadducean high priests were of Zadokite descent. In any event, the name of the Sadducees also implies a sense of righteousness (zedek).Josephus mentions the Sadducees as one of the three Jewish “philosophies” (.



John MacGinnis and David Michelmore

The history of Arbela (cuneiform Urbilum/Urbel/Arbail, modern Erbil) is documented in archaeological and textual sources. From the point when it first entered history in the middle of the 3rd millennium, the city’s fortunes alternated between periods of independence and incorporation within the super-regional states of Mesopotamia, including the Ur III kingdom and, more briefly, the Upper Mesopotamian empire of Shamshi-Adad I. In the later 2nd millennium the city was incorporated within the Assyrian Empire, rising to become a regional capital of major importance. Following the fall of Assyria, the city was incorporated within the Achaemenid, Seleucid, Arsacid, and Sasanian empires. A period of independence as an emirate in the early mediaeval period was a golden age. This came to an end with the city’s submission to the Mongols, after which it came under the control of the Black Sheep and White Sheep Turcomans and the Safavid and Ottoman empires.Arbela—modern Erbil—is a city in the Kurdish region of northern Iraq with a documented history going back more than four thousand years. It is situated in the trans-Tigris region at the interface of the Zagros Mountains and the fertile plains of .



David R. Hernandez

Buthrotum (Bouthrotos; modern Butrint in southern Albania) was a seaport occupying a headland on the coast of Epirus in ancient NW Greece. Described as a “little Troy” in Vergil’s Aeneid, the city was said to have been founded by Helenus after the sack of Troy. Established by the end of 7th century bce, Buthrotum served as an emporium and enclave of Corcyra during the Archaic and Classical periods. Occupying a fortified acropolis with a Doric temple, evidently dedicated to Athena Polias, the city was identified as a polis c. 500 bce. An Epirote city of the Chaones during the Hellenistic period, it established a sanctuary of Asclepius with a theatre, inscribed with over 200 manumission decrees, and an agora. After 167 bce, Buthrotum was the capital of the koinon of the Prasaiboi. In the Late Republic, Titus Pomponius Atticus and Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa were patrons of the city, the former owning a lucrative and attractive villa praised by Cicero. Colonised by Rome in July 44 bce under a plan devised by Julius Caesar, Buthrotum was refounded by Augustus as colonia Augusta Buthrotum.