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Tullia (2), daughter of Cicero, d. 45 bce  

Harriet I. Flower

Cicero’s and Terentia’s daughter Tullia was born around 78 bce, shortly after her parents were married. Since her brother Marcus Tullius Cicero, her only sibling, was about 13 years younger and Tullia married young, she essentially grew up as an only child in the home of Rome’s leading orator. We do not know if any other siblings died as infants. She was surrounded by a loving and stable family and a large household of slaves. Her uncle Quintus Cicero and his wife Pomponia, sister of her father’s best friend T. Pomponius Atticus, were also a regular part of her life. Her mother’s half-sister Fabia was a Vestal Virgin. Tullia may have been brought up by a pious mother to practise Rome’s traditional polytheistic religion. Terentia also had a wide circle of friends and acquaintances amongst Rome’s elite women. Tullia received an excellent education and loved reading. She also enjoyed public entertainments, such as the games held at Antium, where Cicero owned a villa for a while.

Article

Terentia  

Harriet I. Flower

Terentia (c. 98 bcec. 6 ce?) was the first wife of Cicero, to whom she was married for over thirty years, and the mother of his two children Tullia and M. Tullius Cicero. She and Cicero divorced in 46 bce, two years before his death, but she lived on to be 103 years old (Val. Max. 8.13.6, Plin. HN 7.158). She is said to have later married Sallust and M. Valerius Messalla Corvinus, but these other marriages to much younger men seem highly dubious. Terentia is well attested in Cicero’s writings, especially his rich correspondence, as well as in other ancient sources, which makes her one of the most frequently mentioned women of the first century bce. Yet her own voice and point of view are hard to recover, since none of her letters to Cicero has survived. She is not attested as having been as independently active in politics or as visible in the public eye as the most prominent women, such as Servilia, Fulvia, or Clodia (the wife of Metellus). She was a wealthy and well-connected woman who worked hard to support Cicero and their children in times of exceptional political and financial turmoil.

Article

demography  

Saskia Hin

People’s life courses are shaped by the complex interactions of contextual factors, of individual behavior, and of opportunities and constraints operating at the macro level. Demography studies these processes with a focus on particular transitions in the life course: birth, leaving home, marriage, and other transitions in civil status (divorce, remarriage, and transitions into widowhood), the birth and survival of offspring, migration, and finally the end of the life cycle—death.

Initial work on the ancient world focussed primarily on macro-level data, trying to establish overall trends in population development on the basis of census figures and other population estimates. This approach has received further impetus with the advent of survey demography (see Population Trends). More recently, attention has turned to single events in the life course. Core demographic studies have attempted to establish patterns and rates of marriage, fertility, migration, and mortality. Others have taken a complementary approach with a stronger focus on qualitative data. These support investigation of sociological, cultural, and economic aspects of demographic phenomena. The remainder of this article focusses on a concise evaluation of current understanding of marriage, fertility, migration, mortality, and population trends in the ancient Greco-Roman world.