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John Penney

The name is a conventional label applied to the language of some 220 very short inscriptions from the Alpine region to the north of Verona. These date from the 5th to 1st centuries bce and are written in an alphabet of Etruscan origin on bronze objects, antlers, or ceramics. The texts are not completely understood, but from certain similarities in vocabulary, and especially in the formation and declension of personal names, it has been shown that the language is related to Etruscan.


John Frederick Drinkwater

Augusta Raurica (modern Augst, near Basle), a colony founded by L. *Munatius Plancus in 44 bce in the territory of the Raurici. Strengthened by Augustus, with *Augusta Praetoria and *Augusta Vindelicorum it helped protect the upper Rhine and Danube valleys, and the Alpine route from Italy. It flourished in the 2nd and 3rd centuries, as is demonstrated by the impressive remains: forum, temples, theatre, amphitheatre, basilica, baths, curia, dwellings. In the 3rd century it proved vulnerable to *Alamannic attack. The city wall, begun then, remained uncompleted, and in the 4th century the settlement was moved a little north, to the fortified site of Castrum Rauracense (Kaiseraugst).