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John Penney

The Celtic branch of Indo-European is traditionally divided into Insular Celtic and Continental Celtic. The records of the Continental Celtic languages consist of names, occurring in profusion in Greek and Roman sources, and epigraphic remains from the Classical period; none of these languages can be shown to have survived beyond imperial times. The best known is Gaulish: in the Greek alphabet (borrowed from Massalia), there are funerary and votive inscriptions on stone, mainly from Gallia Narbonensis (c.200–50bce; see Gaul, transalpine) but also from central Gaul (c.100 bce–50ce), as well as graffiti on pottery. In the Latin alphabet, from the mid-1st century bce onward, from most parts of Gaul, there are inscriptions on stone and a range of other texts, including substantial fragments of a late 2nd-century bronze calendar from Coligny, a sizeable corpus of graffiti in cursive script on pottery from La Graufesenque (c.