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Article

Herbert Jennings Rose and Jenny March

Astyanax Astyanax or Scamandrius, ( Il. 6. 402), young son of Hector and Andromache. At the capture of Troy he was flung from the walls by Neoptolemus (1) ( Little Iliad fr. 20 Davies) or killed by Odysseus ( Iliu Persis ). His death is a major motif of Euripides' Trojan Women. In Archaic and Classical art his death is often shown together with that of Priam at the sack of Troy: see O. Touchefeu, LIMC 1/1. 929–37. Polygnotus in his painting of Troy at Delphi showed Priam dead but Astyanax still alive, a child at his mother's breast in the Greek camp

Article

Scepsis  

John Manuel Cook and Simon Hornblower

Scepsis Scepsis, a city of the Troas , reputed to be a foundation of Scamandrius ( see astyanax ) and Ascanius , whose descendants ruled there. It seems to have been an Aeolic settlement but reinforced by Milesians ( see miletus ). It was a tributary member of the Delian League. Released by Lysimachus from incorporation in Alexandria (7) Troas ( 301 bce ), Scepsis enjoyed a vigorous cultural life into Roman times; Aristotle's library was kept there for two centuries. The site is on Kurşunlu Tepe in the upper Scamander valley; there is little to be seen

Article

John Glucker and Robert Sharples

Lyco , c. 300/298–c. 226/224 BCE Lyco ( c. 300/298– c. 226/4 bce ), son of Astyanax of Troas, pupil of Straton (1) of Lampsacus and his successor as head of the Peripatetic school , which he directed for 44 years. The sources for his life, mostly derived from a lost biography by Antigonus (4) of Carystus, show that he was a man of the world, a friend of kings and statesmen, a benefactor of the people, a lover of pleasure and luxury of all kinds—everything but a great philosopher or scientist like his predecessors. He was a fluent and interesting speaker

Article

Jenny March

Andromache Andromache, daughter of Eëtion king of Thebe in the Troad ( see troas ), and wife of Hector ( Il. 6. 395 ff.). Her father and seven brothers were killed by Achilles , and her mother ransomed for a large sum (6. 414 ff.). After the fall of Troy her son Astyanax was killed by the Greeks and she herself became Neoptolemus ( 1 ) 's slave and concubine ( Little Iliad , fr. 20 Davies; Iliu Persis ). She bore him three sons, Pergamus, Pielus, and Molossus, eponym of the Molossi (Paus. 1. 11. 1 f.). According to Euripides' Andromache , she was threatened

Article

Hector  

Herbert Jennings Rose and Jenny March

husband of Andromache and father of Astyanax ( Il. 6. 394 ff.), and the greatest of the Trojan champions. In Homer 's Iliad he first appears leading the Trojans out to battle (2. 807 ff.); he reproaches Paris for avoiding Menelaus ( 1 ) (3. 38 ff.), and arranges the truce and the single combat between the two (85 ff.). He takes a prominent part in the fighting of books 5 and 6, but in the latter goes back to the city for a while to arrange for offerings to be made to the gods. He thus meets Andromache and Astyanax on the city walls in one of the best-known

Article

of the warriors in the Wooden Horse (11. 505–37). After his return to Greece he married Hermione , daughter of Menelaus (1) and Helen (4. 5–9). Cyclic epics ( see epic cycle ) told how, in the sack of Troy, he killed Priam and (according to the Little Iliad ) the infant Astyanax (but the Capture of Troy attributed this to Odysseus), and chose Andromache as his prize. Ibycus made him responsible for the sacrifice of Polyxena (fr. 26 Page, PMG ), as he is in Euripides , Hecuba 523–68, and in the younger Seneca's Trojan Women ( see annaeus seneca

Article

Marcus Niebuhr Tod and Ellen E. Rice

literary history. The compiler of the inscription, whose name is lost, claims to have ‘written up the dates from the beginning, derived from all kinds of records and general histories, starting from Cecrops , the first king of Athens, down to the archonship ( see archontes ) of Astyanax (?) at Paros and Diognetus at Athens’, i.e. 264 / 3 bce , presumably the date or near-date of composition. The first fragment covers the period from 1581 / 0 to 355 / 4 , and the second that from 336 / 5 to 299 / 8. The text is written continuously, but comprises a number

Article

Priam  

Herbert Jennings Rose and Jenny March

name became almost proverbial for a man who had known the extremes of contrasting fortunes. Neoptolemus killing Priam at the altar is a popular scene in art from the early 6th cent. on, as a separate scene or as the centre of a Sack of Troy, and is often associated with the death of Astyanax (see O. Touchefeu , LIMC 2. 1. 931–3). Priam is also shown coming to ransom Hector's body from Achilles (see A. Kossatz -Deissmann, LIMC 1. 1. 147–61). Bibliography Lexicon Iconographicum Mythologiae Classicae 7. 1 (1994), 507–22.

Article

Andrew Brown

Diomedes on the way back. The dispute with Aias over the arms of Achilles, first mentioned at Odyssey 11. 543–51, was related in the Aethiopis and Little Iliad , and Pindar ( Nem. 8. 23–34 ) claims that Odysseus won the arms by dishonest trickery. The killing of the infant Astyanax was attributed to Neoptolemus ( 1 ) by the Little Iliad but to Odysseus by the Sack of Troy. The tragedians tended to be similarly unfavourable. Sophocles , while presenting a noble and magnanimous Odysseus in Aias , makes him an unprincipled cynic in Philoctetes. Euripides

Article

produced from at least 140 bce onwards until the turn of the century. Over 40 titles of tragedies of Attic ( see tragedy, greek ) type are transmitted ( Achilles, Aegisthus, Agamemnonidae, Alcestis, Alcimeo, Alphesiboea, Amphitruo, Andromeda, Antenoridae, Antigona, Armorum iudicium, Astyanax, Athamas, Atreus, Bacchae, Chrysippus, Clutemestra, Deiphobus, Diomedes, Epigoni, Epinausimache, Erigona, Eriphyla, Eurysaces, Hecuba, Hellenes, Medea, Melanippus, Meleager, Minos sive Minotaurus, Myrmidones, Neoptolemus, Nyctegresia, Oenomaus, Pelopidae, Persidae, Philocteta, Phinidae

Article

Robert Maltby

Etymology based on the belief in the significance of names begins with the poets. So Homer associates the name of Odysseus with ὀ ‎ δύρομαι ‎, ‘to grieve’ ( Od. 1. 55), and ὀ ‎ δύσσομαι ‎, ‘to hate’ ( Od. 1. 62), and plays on the literal meanings of such compound names as Astyanax and Telemachus. Aeschylus connects the name of Zeus with ζ ‎ ῆ ‎ ν ‎, ‘to live’ ( Supp. 584), and the name of Helen of Troy with a long series of dire compounds from the verb ἑ ‎ λε ‎ ῖ ‎ ν ‎, ‘to destroy’ ( Ag. 681–90). Similar examples abound in Hesiod , Pindar ,

Article

Homer  

Suzanne Saïd

only a limited perception of his circumstances. Firmly located in a family and a city, as the son of Priam, the husband of Andromache , the father of Astyanax and the leading warrior among the Trojans, this hero of aidos who embodies the ideal norm of Homeric society is tragically trapped in contradictory obligations to his family and to his city. But when he realizes that his time has come, his heroic decision to