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date: 18 January 2021

Cleomenes (2) IIIlocked

  • Paul Cartledge

Extract

*Agiad king of Sparta (reigned c.235–222 bce). The son of Leonidas, he imbibed ideals of social revolution from his wife Agiatis, widow of his father's opponent *Agis IV. Before implementing those ideals at home (and they were not for export), he was active abroad. He first moved in 229, when he annexed *Tegea, *Mantinea, *Orchomenus (2), and Caphyae in Arcadia from the *Aetolian Confederacy. Then, having provoked the *Achaean Confederacy into war (228), he won victories at Mt. Lycaeum and Ladoceia (227). Now (winter 227/6) he seized quasi-despotic power at home and set up a ‘Lycurgan’ regime (see lycurgus(2)). Debts were cancelled, land was redivided, the citizen body was replenished from *perioikoi and foreigners. A refashioned educational cycle and mess-regimen were reinstated (see agōgē), the army re-equipped. The allegedly post-Lycurgan ephorate was abolished, the gerousia made subject to annual re-election, the dyarchy transformed into a de facto monarchy.

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