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date: 25 February 2021

Cumaelocked

  • H. Kathryn Lomas

Extract

Cumae (Gk. Cyme; mod. Cuma), *Euboean colony, founded c.740 bce, 16 km. (10 mi) north-west of Naples (Neapolis). This was the earliest colony on the Italian mainland, and dominated coastal *Campania from 700 to 474 bce, in turn founding *Neapolis, Dicaearchia, Zancle, Abella, and possibly *Nola. Under the rule of *Aristodemus (2) it came into conflict with the *Etruscans, but defeated them at *Aricia in 505 bce and again in 474, in alliance with *Syracuse. In 421, it fell to the *Oscans during their conquest of Campania (Diod. Sic. 11. 51; 12. 76). Although substantially Oscanized, Greek culture was never completely eradicated (Strabo 5. 4. 4). During the Archaic period, it enjoyed cordial relations with Rome, but these soured after the Oscan conquest. It became a civitas sine suffragio (see citizenship, roman) in 338, and remained loyal to Rome in the *Punic Wars.

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