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date: 03 December 2022



  • Eric Herbert Warmington
  •  and Antony Spawforth


Asiatic river (mod. Syr Darya, flowing into the Aral Sea). Though known perhaps to *Herodotus (1) by repute, it was discovered by *Alexander (3) the Great, who founded *Alexandria (5) Eschate (Khodzhend) on it. The Greeks thought that it flowed into the Caspian (which perhaps was once true—see caspian sea), and sometimes confused it with the *Araxes (now the Aras).


  • Near East

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