- Stephen Hodkinson
When the Phoenician ships promised by *Tissaphernes failed to arrive, he transferred the main Peloponnesian fleet to the *Hellespont where *Pharnabazus was offering assistance and the Athenian grain route could be threatened. His fleet was defeated off Cynossema and again off *Abydos (autumn 411). Early in 410 he recaptured *Cyzicus; but there his ships, either by surprise (*Xenophon (1)) or strategy (*Diodorus (3) Siculus), were caught out of harbour by a superior Athenian fleet. Forced to flee to land, he died defending his ships which were all captured or burned. The battle's outcome prompted Sparta's peace offer of 410 and temporarily re-established Athens' naval supremacy.
- Greek History and Historiography