Nicopolis, ‘victory city’, *Alexander(3) the Great's foundation to commemorate the battle of *Issus (333 bce), and, more importantly, its imitations in the east Mediterranean (with a Greek-speaking population), built to commemorate the victories of Roman commanders and emperors, starting with *Pompey.(1)Nicopolis of Pontus, the site of Pompey's victory in 66 bce over *Mithradates VI, where he settled a mixed colony of veterans, wounded, and natives; the scene of *Pharnaces II's victory over Caesar's lieutenant Cn. *Domitius Calvinus in 47 bce. Being a strategic point in the system of frontier roads it grew in importance under the empire, received *ius Italicum, and became the *mētropolis (sense b) of Lesser *Armenia.(2)Nicopolis ad Istrum, founded in northern *Thrace by *Trajan after the Dacian Wars (see dacia) and survived until the mid-5th cent. ad when it was destroyed by the *Huns.