- W. M. Murray
A city of southern *Acarnania located at modern Trikardokastro near the mouth of the *Achelous river. Hostile to Athens in the 450s (*Pericles (1) unsuccessfully besieged the place), Oeniadae eventually joined the Athenians and served as a base for her warships in the 4th cent. In the 3rd cent., it fell to *Aetolia, was restored to Acarnania by *Philip (3) V in 219, returned to Aetolia in 212 by M. *Valerius Laevinus, and finally returned to Acarnania by Rome in 189. Thereafter, progressive silting of its harbours by the nearby river diminished the city's usefulness. Coring studies suggest that the city was surrounded by a lagoonal system to the north and west, even during the 5th cent. bce, and that this system progressively closed off the northern harbour of the city by the 2nd–3rd cents. ce. Impressive remains, including city walls, a theatre, agora, fortified harbour and shipsheds, still mark the site of the ancient city.
- Ancient Geography