Sardinia (Σαρδώ), a large central Mediterranean island, with a mountainous interior, but with rich deposits of *iron, copper, *lead, and *silver. From the early 2nd millennium bce, there was a relatively advanced civilization, based around massive stone-built towers called nuraghi, some 8000 of which are known. There were close contacts with Cypriots (see cyprus) in the later 2nd millennium (who were perhaps searching for iron); metalworking in particular flourished. *Phoenicians settled there from the 9th cent. bce or before, although no Greek colonies are known; and the Carthaginians (see carthage) annexed the island c.500 bce. Rome took Sardinia in 238 bce and in 227 organized it as a province with *Corsica (which in imperial times became separate). The Romans despised the Sardinians (e.g. Festus428 Lindsay), and the island was treated as conquered land, with no free city in republican times. There were constant revolts, ceasing only in 114 bce, although *brigandage continued into the empire (Tac.