- Andrew F. Stewart
ExtractTheodorus (1), Samian architect (see samos), sculptor, and metalworker, active c.550–520 bce. He made two massive silver craters dedicated by *Croesus at *Delphi, *Polycrates (1)'s famous ring, and a golden vine eventually owned by *Darius I (Hdt. 1. 51, 3. 41, 7. 27). He also built the ‘Scias’ at Sparta (apparently an assembly-hall), and assisted in the construction of the *Heraion at Samos (upon which he wrote a book) and the Ephesian Artemisium (Vitr. 7 pref. 12; Plin.HN 36. 95; see ephesus). He reportedly invented the line, rule, lathe, and lever, and made advances in bronze-casting (Plin. HN 7. 198; 35. 152; 36. 90; Paus. 10. 38. 6 f.). His bronze self-portrait was renowned for its realism, and showed him holding a file and a tiny chariot-and-four; the latter was exhibited at *Praeneste in *Pliny(1)'s time (HN 34.
- Greek Material Culture