Occupies a commanding site controlling the route up the Aniene valley (see anio) east into the central *Apennines. Traditionally founded before Rome, it was certainly a major settlement by the end of the 7th cent. bce. An important member of the Latin League (Plin.HN 16. 237), in the 4th cent. bce it frequently fought Rome until deprived of its territory in 338 bce (Livy 7–8. 14). Tibur, however, remained independent, acquiring Roman citizenship (see citizenship, roman) only in 90 bce. The monuments of the Roman town are conspicuous, and include the forum; a sanctuary to Hercules Victor (?of Sullan date) and other temples; an amphitheatre and a rotunda (?4th cent. ce). The airy foothills of the Apennines around Tibur were fashionable locations for villas (e.g. those of *Catullus(1) and *Augustus). The most extraordinary was that of *Hadrian, begun c.