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date: 24 November 2020


  • Theodore John Cadoux
  •  and Andrew Lintott


Triumviri were a board of three in Roman public life, of many different kinds, usually elected by the people. For the annual tresviri monetales and capitales/nocturnisee vigintisexviri. Apart from these, under the republic the most common triumviri were agrarian, whether for founding a colony (coloniae deducendae; see colonization, roman) or assigning land (agris dandis adsignandis—iudicandis is added or substituted, where assignment involved judicial power). The religious college of epulones were originally three. We also find three mensarii (financial officials) appointed in 216 (Livy, 23. 21. 6). *Augustus established boards of three for maintaining the rolls of the senate and the squadrons of upper-class cavalry (legendi senatus and recognoscendi turmas equitum— Suet.Aug.37; Cass. Dio 55. 13. 3). The most famous triumvirate was that consisting of Mark Antony (M. *Antonius(2)), M. *Aemilius Lepidus(3), and Octavian (see augustus), created in 43 bce by the lex Titia.

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