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date: 05 December 2020

Aurelius Antoninus (1), Marcuslocked

, 'Caracalla', Roman emperor, 188–217 ce
  • Anthony R. Birley


Aurelius (RE 46) Antoninus (1), Marcus (CE 188–217), nicknamed Caracalla, emperor ce 198–217. Elder son of L. *Septimius Severus, originally called Septimius Bassianus; renamed after M. Aurelius and made Caesar in 195. Augustus in 198, he was consul for the first time with his father in 202 and for the second time with his brother P. *Septimius Geta (2) in 205, when he had his hated father-in-law C. *Fulvius Plautianus killed. Consul for the third time in 208, again with Geta, whom he also hated, he accompanied his father to *Britain, sharing command against the Caledonians. When Severus died, he and Geta abandoned Scotland, making the *wall of Hadrian the frontier again, and returned to Rome. After having Geta killed (26 December 211), a drastic purge followed. To conciliate the soldiers, he raised their pay, creating financial problems. One solution was the ‘Antonine *constitution’; he simultaneously doubled the inheritance tax paid only by citizens, which funded the *aerariummilitare.

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