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Projected Oceanographical Changes in the Baltic Sea until 2100  

H.E. Markus Meier and Sofia Saraiva

In this article, the concepts and background of regional climate modeling of the future Baltic Sea are summarized and state-of-the-art projections, climate change impact studies, and ... More

The NSF’s Role in Climate Science  

Anjuli S. Bamzai

In the years following the Second World War, the U.S. government played a prominent role in the support of basic scientific research. The National Science Foundation (NSF) was created in ... More

Clustering Techniques in Climate Analysis  

David M. Straus

Online publication date:
Mar 2019
Clustering techniques are used in the analysis of weather and climate to identify discrete groups of atmospheric and oceanic structures and evolutions that occur more frequently than would ... More

Predictability of Decadal Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation Variations  

Florian Sévellec and Bablu Sinha

Online publication date:
Sep 2018
The Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (AMOC) is a large, basin-scale circulation located in the Atlantic Ocean that transports climatically important quantities of heat northward. ... More

Intraseasonal Modulation of the Indian Summer Monsoon  

Bin Wang

Online publication date:
Apr 2018
The strongest Indian summer monsoon (ISM) on the planet features prolonged clustered spells of wet and dry conditions often lasting for two to three weeks, known as active and break ... More

Quaternary Climate Variation in West Africa  

Timothy M. Shanahan

West Africa is among the most populated regions of the world, and it is predicted to continue to have one of the fastest growing populations in the first half of the 21st century. More than ... More

Predictability of El Niño-Southern Oscillation Events  

Wansuo Duan and Mu Mu

Online publication date:
Mar 2018
This article retrospects the studies of the predictability of El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) events within the framework of error growth dynamics and reviews the results of previous ... More

Climate Dynamics of ENSO Modoki Phenomena  

Swadhin Behera and Toshio Yamagata

Online publication date:
Feb 2018
The El Niño Modoki/La Niña Modoki (ENSO Modoki) is a newly acknowledged face of ocean-atmosphere coupled variability in the tropical Pacific Ocean. The oceanic and atmospheric conditions ... More

The Indian Ocean Dipole  

Saji N. Hameed

Discovered at the very end of the 20th century, the Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD) is a mode of natural climate variability that arises out of coupled ocean–atmosphere interaction in the Indian ... More

Atmospheric Blocking in Observation and Models  

Stefano Tibaldi and Franco Molteni

The atmospheric circulation in the mid-latitudes of both hemispheres is usually dominated by westerly winds and by planetary-scale and shorter-scale synoptic waves, moving mostly from west ... More

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