Figure 9. Differences in vegetation cover in the region of today’s Sahara between present-day and mid-Holocene climate as simulated by various coupled vegetation (or biome)-climate models. Results are shown from simulations by (A)Claussen and Gayler (1997), (B)Doherty et al. (2000), (C)Schurgers et al. (2006), (D)Liu et al., (2007), (E) Vamborg et al. (2011), and (F) Rachmayani et al. (2015). In A, B, C the green areas indicate a change in biomes. In E, F green areas indicate an increase in vegetated coverage by more than 0.1. In E, the large crosses depict areas in which brief green spells appear during the mid-Holocene but not in present-day climate. Small crosses mark areas in which green spells occur more often in mid-Holocene climate than in pre-industrial climate. Green dots indicate locations in which vegetation occurs in the region of the present-day Sahara during the mid-Holocene according to the biome reconstruction by Prentice et al. (2000). The yellow dots indicate locations in the Libyan Sand Sea in which a desert biome is reconstructed also for mid-Holocene climate.