Figure 11. Normalized time series of changes in insolation at 30°N (dashed line), pollen of tropical taxa in Lake Yoa (Kröpelin et al., 2008) (black line), dust flux into the North Atlantic Ocean (deMenocal et al., 2000) (dark red line, scale inverted), hydrogen isotopic composition in leaf waxes near the Horn of Africa (Tierney & deMenocal, 2013) (blue line), and in stable carbon isotope composition reflecting the proportion of grasses and trees/shrubs in the Nile watershed (Blanchet et al., 2014).