Figure 12. Simulated transient development of vegetation fraction and climate in the Sahara. (a) Simulated changes in vegetation fraction on average over the entire Sahara by Claussen and Gayler (1997). (b) Simulated changes in vegetation fraction in the Western Sahara/Sahel region (14°W to 3°E, 17°N to 28°N) by Renssen et al. (2003). (c) Simulated changes in grass cover in the Eastern Sahara (11°E to 34°E, 18°N to 23°N) by Liu et al. (2007). (Redrawn from Claussen, 2009).