Figure 14. Simulated transient changes in vegetation coverage. Shown are changes in vegetation in a system in which a resilient plant type (blue curve) interacts with precipitation, sketched as Case 1 in the stability diagram of Figure 13, and in which a sensitive plant type (red curve) interacts with precipitation, depicted as Case 3 in Figure 13. The forcing varies linearly over the entire time period of 3000 years. The corresponding curves for precipitation changes follow the curves for vegetation coverage. Please note that t < 0 indicates past climate changes, that is, t = -6000 y stands for the year 6 ky bp. The dashed line depicts a hysteresis, which arises when the model is run backward in time from –3500y to –6500y. (Adapted from Claussen et al., 2013).