Figure 10. OA Net heat flux at surface (Wm- 2) (shading) and ERA surface winds stress (Nm-2) (vectors) during (a) JJAS and (b) DJF over the tropical Indian Ocean. The black arrows are showing direction of Ekman transport. (c) Climatological mean meridional stream function in the tropical Indian Ocean during JJAS calculated from the velocity field of SODA (Carton & Giese, 2008). (d) Composite difference in the meridional stream function during JJAS between strong and weak monsoons. The white arrows show the direction of circulation.