Given the dire nature of many researchers’ predictions about the effects of global climate change (e.g., rising sea levels, droughts, more extreme weather), it comes as little surprise that less attention has been paid to the subtler, less direct outcomes of rapid climate change: psychological, sociological, political, and economic effects. In this chapter we explore one such outcome in particular: the effects of rapid climate change on aggression. We begin by exploring the potential for climate change to directly affect aggression in individuals, focusing on research showing the relationship between uncomfortably hot ambient temperature and aggression. Next, we review several lines of research illustrating ways that climate change can indirectly increase aggression in individuals. We then shift our focus from individuals to the effects of climate change on group-level aggression. We finish by addressing points of contention, including the challenge that the effects of climate change on aggression are too remote and too small to be considered relevant.
Effects of Rapid Climate Change on Violence and Conflict
Courtney Plante, Johnie J. Allen, and Craig A. Anderson
Climatic Determinism and the Conceptualization of the Tropics in British India
Rituparna Ray Chowdhury
The geographic concept of tropicality emerged as an operative tool in the colonizing efforts of the European powers in the 18th and 19th centuries. Since the colonizing encounters proved fatal for many Europeans in South Asia, particularly during the initial phase of settlement when their mortality rate was far higher than that of the natives, attempts were made to understand the impact of the tropical climate upon the Western constitution. Based on the ancient Hippocratic doctrines of humoral pathology and the narrative of Enlightenment thinkers, colonial medical professionals endeavored to determine a correlation between health and environment. According to Western classical understanding, health was dependent upon various climatic and environmental factors. With the prevailing perception that the oppressive climatic conditions of India and its hazardous disease-infused environs were inimical to the survival of the Anglo-Indians in South Asia, the ancient concept of climatic determinism was revitalized during the colonial period. This theory, which argued that people tended to resemble the dominant characteristics of the climate in which they lived, proved convenient at a time of aggressive expansion, when moral grounds were required for justifying the Western designs of conquest and exploitation. Explanations like environmental determinism encouraged conjectures that the tropical climate of India bred only “lazy” and “degenerative” people, in contrast to the “manly” and “strong” individuals of the temperate zone. This notion, with its insidious veneer of rationality, facilitated a justification of the ideology of imperial colonization, while also discouraging permanent settlement of the European colonizers upon Indian soil.
Health Problems in the European Alps Under Climate Change
Lisbeth Weitensfelder, Hans-Peter Hutter, Kathrin Lemmerer, Michael Poteser, Peter Wallner, and Hanns Moshammer
The Alpine region in Central Europe and its populations in principle face the same types of threats to their health due to climate change as those in other parts of the world. But special geographical and climatic aspects of that region warrant closer and special examination of the connections between health and climate change in the Alps. These include small-scale variation, in some instances steep mountain slopes, and, above all, a larger-than-average increase in near-surface temperatures. To that end, there are main pathways between climate change and health: “Direct effects” describe rather short-term health effects of extreme weather events. Such events have occurred in the past, and therefore ample epidemiological evidence is available for the assessment of their impact. With climate change, such extreme events are predicted to change in frequency and intensity. “Indirect effects” refer to a more complex pathway where long-term changes of various natural and anthropogenic systems in reaction or adaptation to climate change exert adverse or sometimes also beneficial impacts on health. Such systems include ecosystems in which, for example, the prevalence of disease vectors or the allergenicity of pollen will change. But agriculture and forestry or the built environment are also affected by climate change and in turn affect the health of people. “Distant effects” are also rather indirect in nature. But in this pathway, changes due to climate change in other parts of the world affect the health in the Alpine region. Increasing migration into the Alpine region and changing migration patterns are important examples of this pathway. In some instances, most importantly regarding mental health, there is still a need for more studies focusing on the Alpine environments. But apart from these especially understudied topics, as the climate crisis evolves, there is generally a need for continuous research on the health effects of climate change and the potential of health promotion to create co-benefits.
Atmospheric Heating Source Over the Tibetan Plateau and Its Regional Climate Impact
Guoxiong Wu, Anmin Duan, and Yimin Liu
With an average elevation of 4 kilometers, a combined area of more than 2.5 million square kilometers, and a variety of complicated landscapes, the Tibetan Plateau (TP) constitutes the highest and largest terrain on earth. The Tibetan and Iranian Plateau (TIP) form a dynamically coupled system that exerts a tremendous impact on the regional and global climate. The TIP’s geographic location in the subtropics of central and eastern Asia, along with its altitude, size, and steep terrain on the southern and eastern slopes, make this climate impact particularly unique. In winter, the TIP reacts to the impinging subtropical westerly flow, producing a strong negative mountain torque and forming a prominent stationary circulation dipole with a huge anticyclone circulation to its north and cyclone circulation to its south in the tropics. A specific winter climate pattern over Asia is thus formed. Due to its high elevation, the total mass of the air column over the TP is much smaller than over the neighboring regions, as the solar radiation heating in this region is more efficient. The atmospheric heating source (AHS) over the TP is negative in winter and strongly positive in summer. On this elevated terrain there is also a large number of intersecting isentropic surfaces in the lower troposphere. Along its sloping surfaces, the cooling in winter causes the near-surface air to slide downward and diverge toward its surroundings, whereas the surface heating of the slope in summer results in near-surface air ascent, causing the surrounding air to converge toward the plateau. More significantly, due to its huge size, the surface-sensible heating of the TIP produces a large-scale surface cyclonic circulation and works as an immense sensible-heat-driven air pump (SHAP), which transports abundant water vapor from ocean to land to support the Asian continental monsoon. In addition, the plateau’s heating produces a subtropical monsoonal meridional circulation and creates a large-scale air ascent background in subtropical Asia. Therefore, the Asian monsoon is the consequence of the seasonal change not only in land-sea thermal contrast but also in the thermal forcing of large-scale mountains. Since the 1980s, the near surface atmospheric warming amplitude over the TP has grown much larger than the global mean, and the changes in climate and AHS over the TP have already influenced the water resources, ecosystem services, mountain hazards, and livelihoods across and around the TP. Understanding the climate effect of the TP’s AHS is not only a key issue for climate dynamics, but can also help us to recognize the thermal forcing of other large-scale topographies, such as the Rockies and Andes Mountains, on the global climate in the framework of land-air-sea interaction. This article will introduce the effect of the TP’s AHS on the regional climate, with emphasis on the East Asian summer monsoon (EASM) and South Asian summer monsoon (SASM), in terms of the climatology, intra-seasonal oscillation, interannual variability, and decadal change. Controversies, challenges, and future perspectives on this topic will also be presented. Its informative content can be used as a professional reference for research scientists and professionals in the fields of meteorology, climate dynamics, environmental science, geography and geology, hydrology, and paleo-climatology. Most material presented here can also be helpful for non-specialists.