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Baltic Sea Level: Past, Present, and Future  

Ralf Weisse and Birgit Hünicke

Online publication date:
Apr 2019
A multitude of geophysical processes contribute to and determine variations and changes in the height of the Baltic Sea water surface. These processes act on a broad range of characteristic ... More

Climate, History, and Social Change in Sweden and the Baltic Sea Area From About 1700  

Sven Lilja

Online publication date:
Sep 2017
The growing concern about global warming has turned focus in Sweden and other Baltic countries toward the connection between history and climate. Important steps have been taken in the ... More

The Development of Climate Science of the Baltic Sea Region  

Anders Omstedt

Online publication date:
Nov 2017
Dramatic climate changes have occurred in the Baltic Sea region caused by changes in orbital movement in the earth–sun system and the melting of the Fennoscandian Ice Sheet. Added to these ... More

Effects of Climate Change and Fisheries on the Marine Ecosystem of the Baltic Sea  

Christian Möllmann

Climate change and fisheries have significantly changed the Baltic Sea ecosystem, with the demise of Eastern Baltic cod (Gadus morhua callarias) being the signature development. Cod in the ... More

Future Climate Change in the Baltic Sea Region and Environmental Impacts  

Jouni Räisänen

Online publication date:
Oct 2017
The warming of the global climate is expected to continue in the 21st century, although the magnitude of change depends on future anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions and the sensitivity ... More

Impacts of Climate Change on the Ecosystem of the Baltic Sea  

Markku Viitasalo

Online publication date:
Feb 2019
Climate change influences the Baltic Sea ecosystem via its effects on oceanography and biogeochemistry. Sea surface temperature has been projected to increase by 2 to 4 °C until 2100 due to ... More

Post-Glacial Baltic Sea Ecosystems  

Ilppo Vuorinen

Post-glacial aquatic ecosystems in Eurasia and North America, such as the Baltic Sea, evolved in the freshwater, brackish, and marine environments that fringed the melting glaciers. Warming ... More

Projected Oceanographical Changes in the Baltic Sea until 2100  

H.E. Markus Meier and Sofia Saraiva

In this article, the concepts and background of regional climate modeling of the future Baltic Sea are summarized and state-of-the-art projections, climate change impact studies, and ... More

Projections for Temperature, Precipitation, Wind, and Snow in the Baltic Sea Region until 2100  

Ole Bøssing Christensen and Erik Kjellström

Online publication date:
Sep 2018
The ecosystems and the societies of the Baltic Sea region are quite sensitive to fluctuations in climate, and therefore it is expected that anthropogenic climate change will affect the ... More

Regional History of Settlement and Human Impacts in the Baltic Sea Region over the Last 2000 Years  

Mika Lavento

Online publication date:
Apr 2019
The Baltic Sea catchment area extends from the upper course of the Elbe in the Czech Republic to northernmost Lapland where the Tornionjoki river (Sw. Torneälven = Lake Torne) marks the ... More