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Theories of Journalism  

Stephen D. Reese

Online publication date:
Aug 2016
Journalism seeks to observe and communicate what it learns of social importance, something called news, and in doing so is always in the process of creating a public by bringing it into ... More

Theory of Mind and Communication in Health and Risk Messaging  

M. Jeffrey Farrar, Yao Guan, and Kaitlyn Erhardt

Online publication date:
May 2017
Humans live not only in a physical world but also in a mental world. Theory of mind reflects the understanding that the mind is comprised of different mental states, such as intentions, ... More

Thought Speed and Health Communication  

Kaite Yang and Emily Pronin

Social psychological research on thinking has generally focused on the attitudes, emotions, motivations, and biases that affect thinking and consequent behavior. What has received less ... More

Tourism and Intergroup Communication  

Hiroshi Ota

This is an advance summary of a forthcoming article in the Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Communication. Please check back later for the full article. ... More

Transcription for Conversation Analysis  

Galina B. Bolden and Alexa Hepburn

Online publication date:
Mar 2018
The transcription system for Conversation Analysis (CA) was originally developed by Gail Jefferson, one of the founders of CA, in the 1960s. Jefferson’s transcription conventions aim to ... More

Transnational Cooperation in Journalism  

Maria Konow-Lund, Amanda Gearing, and Peter Berglez

Online publication date:
Jun 2019
The journalism industry has used technology and cooperation to convey information around the world since the mid-1800s when six American newspapers aligned to form the Associated Press. ... More

Transnational News Flows  

Daya Kishan Thussu

Online publication date:
Aug 2019
The international flow of news has traditionally been dominated by that from North to South, with the West being at the core. Within the West itself, news flow is dominated by ... More

Transportation Theory Applied to Health and Risk Messaging  

Melanie C. Green and Kaitlin Fitzgerald

Online publication date:
Jan 2017
Transportation Theory: Narrative transportation theory focuses on the causes and consequences of an individual being immersed in a story, or ... More

Transtheoretical Model and Stages of Change in Health and Risk Messaging  

Seth M. Noar

Online publication date:
Jan 2017
The Transtheoretical Model (TTM) is an integrative health behavior change theory that describes the process of how people change their behavior. The central organizing construct in the ... More

Types of Explanations in Health and Risk Messaging  

Katherine E. Rowan

Explanations designed to teach, rather than to support scientific claims in scholarly works, are essential in health and risk communication. Patients explain why they think their symptoms ... More

Uncertainty and Extremism  

Sucharita Belavadi

Online publication date:
Jul 2017
Uncertainty regarding the self—about who we are, our place in the world, and our future is typically an unsettling and aversive state. It is a state that we are motivated to reduce in ... More

Uncertainty Management Theories  

Michael A. Hogg and Sucharita Belavadi

Online publication date:
Aug 2017
The subjective state of uncertainty can be understood as deriving from reduced predictability of and control over events and the world around us. There are different ways to conceptualize ... More

Understanding Hate Speech  

Michael S. Waltman and Ashely A. Mattheis

Online publication date:
Sep 2017
Most of the research dealing with hate and hate speech has examined the practices and discourses of hate groups and hate crimes. This work has tended to focus on hate and hate speech ... More

The United States Military: Sites of Intergroup Discourses  

Erin Sahlstein Parcell

Online publication date:
Aug 2017
The United States military is a frequent point of public conversation since the terrorist attacks on September 11th, 2001. Approximately two and a half million service members have ... More

Urban Communication  

Susan J. Drucker and Gary Gumpert

Cities themselves function as media of communication. They are places where messages are created, carried, and exchanged by structures, infrastructures, and people. Urbanity is an age-old ... More

Using Guilt to Motivate Individuals to Adopt Healthy Habits  

Monique Mitchell Turner

In social marketing, the use of guilt appeals can be effective for influencing healthy behaviors. Guilt, being a moral, other-based emotion, can spur people to think of others, act ... More

Using Maps to Display Geographic Risk, Personal Health Data, and Ownership  

Suellen Hopfer and Genesis Gutierrez

Fundamental structural features of risk maps influence how health risk and burden information is understood. The mapping of health data by medical geographers in the 1800s has evolved into ... More

Using Pictures in Health and Risk Messages  

Sarah C. Vos and Elisia Cohen

Using pictures (also called images) in health and risk messages increases attention to messages and facilitates increased retention of message content, especially in low-literate ... More

Using Quotations in Health and Risk Message Design  

Rhonda Gibson

Quotations, something that a person says or writes that is then used by someone else in another setting, have long been a staple of news stories. Reporters use quotations—both direct and ... More

Verbal Communication Styles and Culture  

Meina Liu

Online publication date:
Nov 2016
A communication style is the way people communicate with others, verbally and nonverbally. It combines both language and nonverbal cues and is the meta-message that dictates how listeners ... More

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