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Patterns of Reasoning  

William Mosley-Jensen and Edward Panetta

Online publication date:
May 2017
Health professionals and the public puzzle through new or controversial issues by deploying patterns of reasoning that are found in a variety of social contexts. While particular issues ... More

Paul Gilroy and Communication Studies  

Armond Towns

Online publication date:
Dec 2018
Paul Gilroy is a central figure in British cultural studies. From There Ain’t No Black in the Union Jack to Darker than Blue, his work has consistently interrogated what the political ... More

Paulo Freire and Communication Studies  

Tania Ramalho

For Paulo Freire, the Brazilian activist educator and philosopher of education, communication is at the heart of pedagogy, teaching, and learning through praxis that involves reflection ... More

Paywalls and Payment Systems  

Merja Myllylahti

Online publication date:
Aug 2018
Funding of journalism has become a critical part of journalism and digital journalism studies because no single business model has emerged to solve revenue problems for print and digital ... More

Peace Journalism  

Jake Lynch

Online publication date:
Jun 2018
Peace Journalism is a set of distinctions in the representation of conflicts. Put forward originally by Johan Galtung, the Peace Journalism model has acted as an organizing principle for ... More

Performance of Race, Culture, and Whiteness  

Bryant Keith Alexander

Online publication date:
Nov 2018
The nature of human social engagement could be described as operating along four basic principles: (1) notions of naming and recognizing features of particularity and difference; (2) ... More

Performance Studies in Critical Communication Studies  

Judith Hamera

Online publication date:
Feb 2018
Performance studies presumes that political economy, cultural continuity, self-fashioning, and interpersonal exchange are embodied, aesthetic, affective, creative, contested, and ... More

Persuasive Health Message Design  

Nancy Grant Harrington

Online publication date:
Jun 2016
The study of persuasive health messages—their design, dissemination, and impact—is ubiquitous in the communication discipline. Words, sounds, and images—alone or in combination—can move ... More

Photojournalism  

Loup Langton

Photography has been a practical reality for about 190 years, and, from its beginnings, journalism seemed like a natural application of the medium since most people believed that the ... More

Physiological Measures of Wellness and Message Processing  

Kory Floyd, Corey A. Pavlich, and Dana R. Dinsmore

Research has shown that the expression of affection and other forms of prosocial communication between two or more people promotes wellness and has the potential to increase life ... More

Policies for Online Search  

Bill D. Herman

Online publication date:
Nov 2016
The volume of information on the Internet is incomprehensible and growing exponentially. With such a vast ocean of information available, search engines have become an indispensible tool ... More

Policy Issues Surrounding Broadcasting  

Hilde Van den Bulck

Online publication date:
Feb 2016
In Europe and elsewhere broadcasting is considered by some a “thing of the past,” and broadcasting policy subsequently as hard to develop or even no longer relevant. Broadcasting has ... More

Policy Issues Surrounding Journalism  

Philip M. Napoli and Sarah Stonbely

Online publication date:
Feb 2018
The role of government policy in journalism can vary substantially across nations; as in 21st century the primary policy issues surrounding journalism have evolved as technological changes ... More

Political Cartoons  

Zazil Reyes García

Political cartoons are rhetorical artifacts where journalism and popular culture intersect. Through the use of images and words, facts and fiction, political cartoons provide their readers ... More

Political Correctness  

Becky R. Ford

Online publication date:
Aug 2017
The term political correctness (PC) has been used since the 1930s in Maoist China, where it meant fall in line with the Communist Party’s politics. In the 1980s, there was a revival of the ... More

Political Economies of Media Technologies  

Vincent Mosco

Political economy approaches examine the power relations that comprise the production, distribution, and exchange of resources. They are distinguished from economics by a deeper concern ... More

Political Economy of the Media  

Dal Yong Jin

Online publication date:
Feb 2018
Political economy of the media includes several domains including journalism, broadcasting, advertising, and information and communication technology. A political economy approach analyzes ... More

Political Entertainment: Historical Traditions and Contemporary Genres  

Heather LaMarre

This is an advance summary of a forthcoming article in the Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Communication. Please check back later for the full article. The ... More

Political Journalism  

Jesper Strömbäck and Adam Shehata

Political journalism constitutes one of the most prominent domains of journalism, and is essential for the functioning of democracy. Ideally, political journalism should function as an ... More

Political Knowledge and Communication  

Lindsay H. Hoffman

Online publication date:
Jul 2019
Political knowledge is a concept of central importance in political communication research, yet exactly how it should be operationalized has been a long-running conversation among ... More

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