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Uncertainty Management Theories  

Michael A. Hogg and Sucharita Belavadi

Online publication date:
Aug 2017
The subjective state of uncertainty can be understood as deriving from reduced predictability of and control over events and the world around us. There are different ways to conceptualize ... More

Understanding Hate Speech  

Michael S. Waltman and Ashely A. Mattheis

Online publication date:
Sep 2017
Most of the research dealing with hate and hate speech has examined the practices and discourses of hate groups and hate crimes. This work has tended to focus on hate and hate speech ... More

The United States Military: Sites of Intergroup Discourses  

Erin Sahlstein Parcell

Online publication date:
Aug 2017
The United States military is a frequent point of public conversation since the terrorist attacks on September 11th, 2001. Approximately two and a half million service members have ... More

Urban Communication  

Susan J. Drucker and Gary Gumpert

Cities themselves function as media of communication. They are places where messages are created, carried, and exchanged by structures, infrastructures, and people. Urbanity is an age-old ... More

Using Guilt to Motivate Individuals to Adopt Healthy Habits  

Monique Mitchell Turner

In social marketing, the use of guilt appeals can be effective for influencing healthy behaviors. Guilt, being a moral, other-based emotion, can spur people to think of others, act ... More

Using Maps to Display Geographic Risk, Personal Health Data, and Ownership  

Suellen Hopfer and Genesis Gutierrez

Fundamental structural features of risk maps influence how health risk and burden information is understood. The mapping of health data by medical geographers in the 1800s has evolved into ... More

Using Pictures in Health and Risk Messages  

Sarah C. Vos and Elisia Cohen

Using pictures (also called images) in health and risk messages increases attention to messages and facilitates increased retention of message content, especially in low-literate ... More

Using Quotations in Health and Risk Message Design  

Rhonda Gibson

Quotations, something that a person says or writes that is then used by someone else in another setting, have long been a staple of news stories. Reporters use quotations—both direct and ... More

Verbal Communication Styles and Culture  

Meina Liu

Online publication date:
Nov 2016
A communication style is the way people communicate with others, verbally and nonverbally. It combines both language and nonverbal cues and is the meta-message that dictates how listeners ... More

Video Games and Gaming: Reaching Audiences With Health and Risk Messages  

Anthony M. Limperos

Online publication date:
Jun 2017
Video games are a very popular form of entertainment media and have been the subject of much debate since their meteoric rise to popularity in the 1980s. Similar to the criticisms ... More

Violent Media Content and Effects  

Robert Busching, Johnie J. Allen, and Craig A. Anderson

In our modern age, electronic media usage is prevalent in almost every part of the world. People are more connected than ever before with easy access to highly portable devices (e.g., ... More

Viral Marketing and Exposure to Health and Risk Messages  

Helena Sofia Rodrigues and Manuel José Fonseca

In the context of epidemiology, an epidemic is defined as the spread of an infectious disease to a large number of people, in a given population, within a short period of time. When we ... More

Vision and Promoting Health  

Marla L. Moon

A visual impairment can affect cognitive, emotional, neurological, and physical development. Visual impairment impairs reading speed and comprehension, and is often mistaken for a learning ... More

Visuality and Security  

Axel Heck

Online publication date:
Mar 2018
The term security has its origins in the Latin word securitas, which could be translated as “without care” or “without worries.” Security as a concept used in social sciences indicates a ... More

Visual Rhetoric  

Zazil Reyes García

Online publication date:
Mar 2018
The growing field of visual rhetoric explores the communicative and persuasive power of the visual artifacts that surround us. This relatively new branch of rhetoric emerged in the late ... More

Visual Rhetoric and Semiotic  

Marcel Danesi

Online publication date:
May 2017
Visual Rhetoric (VR) is a field of inquiry aiming to analyze all kinds of visual images and texts as rhetorical structures. VR is an offshoot of both visual semiotics, or the study of the ... More

Vitality Theory  

Benjamin King Smith, Martin Ehala, and Howard Giles

Online publication date:
Jul 2017
Group vitality is a widely invoked construct in the study of minority language maintenance and interethnic relations. Per the original framework introduced 40 years ago, the more vitality ... More

Vividness  

Patrick J. Ewell and Rosanna E. Guadagno

According to Nisbett and Ross, “Information may be described as vivid, that is, as likely to attract and hold our attention and excite the imagination to the extent that it is (a) ... More

Weight and Weightism  

Analisa Arroyo and Kristin Andersen

Online publication date:
Aug 2017
Weight-based stigma is pervasive and is propagated via sociocultural and interpersonal messages that influence individuals’ identity. The ideals communicated in these messages place ... More

Women Entrepreneurs, Global Microfinance, and Development 2.0  

Radhika Gajjala and Dinah Tetteh

Online publication date:
Apr 2016
The 1970s brought forth strong movements for the financial empowerment of women and women’s labor rights protections in rural, developing world regions such as India. For instance, 1972 is ... More

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