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News, Economic Governance, and Anti-Corruption  

Anya Schiffrin

In the past 50 years, there has been a burgeoning literature on the role of journalism in promoting governance and supporting anti-corruption efforts. Much of this comes from the work of ... More

News Editing and the Editorial Process  

Tim Klein, Elisabeth Fondren, and Leonard M. Apcar

Online publication date:
Nov 2019
Throughout the ages, the editor’s primary role has been to connect writers with readers by deciding what to publish. In modern scholarship, this is known as gatekeeping. The stories an ... More

News Literacy  

Masato Kajimoto and Jennifer Fleming

Online publication date:
Jun 2019
News literacy is an emerging field within the disciplines of media literacy, journalism education, information technology, and other related areas, although there is no unified definition ... More

News Sources and Journalist/Source Interaction  

Caroline Fisher

Online publication date:
Aug 2018
The relationship between journalists and their sources is central to journalism practice. It is a relationship based on a power struggle over the presentation of information to the public. ... More

News Startups  

Nikki Usher and Aske Kammer

Online publication date:
Apr 2019
The rise of news startups in their modern incarnation has taken place on a global scale, and needs consideration as a phenomenon. First, a brief history of news startups is provided, ... More

News Values and Newsworthiness  

Helen Caple

Online publication date:
Jun 2018
How events become news has always been a fundamental question for both journalism practitioners and scholars. For journalism practitioners, news judgments are wrapped up in the moral ... More

NGOs as News Organizations  

Kate Wright

Non-governmental organizations (NGOs) are not-for-profit groups, which are independent of commercial businesses and government agencies. They claim to serve various notions of the public ... More

Objectivity and Bias in Journalism  

Stephen J. A. Ward

Online publication date:
Mar 2019
Journalism objectivity or news objectivity had its origins in Western media cultures, especially in the United States, in the early 20th century. The principle, however, has found its way ... More

Online Comments and Journalism  

J. David Wolfgang

Online publication date:
Aug 2018
Shortly after its emergence as a tool for participatory journalism, online commenting became a popular format for audience public discourse and a subject of controversy for professional ... More

Paywalls and Payment Systems  

Merja Myllylahti

Online publication date:
Aug 2018
Funding of journalism has become a critical part of journalism and digital journalism studies because no single business model has emerged to solve revenue problems for print and digital ... More

Peace Journalism  

Jake Lynch

Online publication date:
Jun 2018
Peace Journalism is a set of distinctions in the representation of conflicts. Put forward originally by Johan Galtung, the Peace Journalism model has acted as an organizing principle for ... More

Photojournalism  

Loup Langton

Photography has been a practical reality for about 190 years, and, from its beginnings, journalism seemed like a natural application of the medium since most people believed that the ... More

Policy Issues Surrounding Journalism  

Philip M. Napoli and Sarah Stonbely

Online publication date:
Feb 2018
The role of government policy in journalism can vary substantially across nations; as in 21st century the primary policy issues surrounding journalism have evolved as technological changes ... More

Political Journalism  

Jesper Strömbäck and Adam Shehata

Political journalism constitutes one of the most prominent domains of journalism, and is essential for the functioning of democracy. Ideally, political journalism should function as an ... More

Political Parallelism  

Afonso de Albuquerque

Online publication date:
Jun 2018
Political parallelism refers to a pattern or relationship where the structure of the political parties is somewhat reflected by the media organizations. A concept introduced by Seymour-Ure ... More

The Practice of Fixing and the Role of Fixers in Global Journalism  

Shayna Plaut and Peter W. Klein

Online publication date:
Jul 2019
Sociologists and media scholars have offered a robust body of literature regarding the daily workings of global journalism—both in newsrooms and in the field. Although fixers are sometimes ... More

Press Subsidies  

Mart Ots and Robert G. Picard

Online publication date:
Sep 2018
Due to its function as a watchdog or fourth estate in democratic societies and a variety of commercial challenges, policy-makers have undertaken initiatives to support the production and ... More

The Producer/User Distinction in Journalism  

Ike Picone

Online publication date:
Aug 2018
Journalism can be defined as a communication process between producers and consumers. Traditionally, both ends have been addressed as separate spheres. Journalism and journalism studies ... More

Professional Identity and Roles of Journalists  

Thomas Hanitzsch

Online publication date:
Oct 2017
The study of journalists’ professional roles is a principal avenue to understand journalism’s identity and place in society. From the perspective of discursive institutionalism, one could ... More

Professionalism, Professionalization, and Deprofessionalization in Journalism  

Jenny Wiik

Online publication date:
Aug 2019
The notion of professionalism within journalism is widespread and has been thoroughly explored. “Professionalism” refers to a normative value system utilized by professionals in relation ... More

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