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Article

For Paulo Freire, the Brazilian activist educator and philosopher of education, communication is at the heart of pedagogy, teaching, and learning through praxis that involves reflection and action ultimately to address social injustice and dehumanization. Dialogue is at the center of his pedagogical approach, as means to individuation and humanization. Dialogue assumes participants to be on an equal level even in the presence of difference. In his literacy work, Freire required teacher-facilitators to co-investigate the most important themes in the lives of students. These themes were codified into pictures and brought to dialogue that animated the re-creation of knowledge of participants’ world and themselves in it and, in the process of learning how to read, achieving knowledge of the word. The objective of this approach was not to reproduce “banking” education but to promote revolutionary emancipation of individual and society. Freire developed his work in the context of life in the state of Pernambuco, in the challenging circumstances—socially, historically, and geographically—of the Brazilian Northeast Region. He experienced poverty and hunger and was lucky in his access to education thanks to the efforts of his mother. He rose through the ranks of civil service, serving at state and national levels, addressing the literacy and emancipatory needs of the population, particularly adults in rural areas. Exiled during the military dictatorship in Brazil, Freire lived in Chile, the United States, and Switzerland, where he worked on education projects worldwide.

Article

Irina N. Trofimova and W. John Morgan

Ethnicity and education form an interdisciplinary and multilevel research field. The issues are equity, whether education promotes unity or ethnic diversity, and whether such objectives are contradictory. Interethnic relations in education are shaped by state policy as well as social, economic, and demographic processes, culture, and traditions. The relations between federal government and regions, which have different ethnic demographics, create an ideology of interethnic relations in formal education and the media. Such relations develop from the everyday communication experiences of ethnic groups in multinational communities. These are at the macro-, meso-, and microlevels providing a framework for description and theoretical analysis. The historical context is followed by the political, demographic, and ethnic structure of the Russian Federation. Ethnicity and national minorities in formal education, including migrants and their children, is considered. This is followed by ethnicity in higher education, professional education, and vocational training. The contribution of informal popular education and lifelong learning to self-esteem, and civic self-confidence is also considered. Interethnic relations are influenced by the relationship between the titular nations and the Russians. The experience of coexistence in a multinational environment is a key factor in interethnic communication in contemporary Russia. The problem of ethnicity in education is changing, with the spatial segregation of ethnic groups becoming more common as well as the growing role of the media. The impact of the COVID-19 pandemic is noted. The impact on interethnic relations of the invasion of Ukraine by Russia on February 24, 2022, is assessed briefly.