Welcome to the Oxford Encyclopedia of Criminology and Criminal Justice

Learn more

Letter from the editor

Discretion in the U.S. Parole System

"Parole in the United States is both a process by which an individual may be released from incarceration by discretionary decision or statutory requirement as well as the term of conditional supervision that follows this (potentially early) release. In many cases, parole also entails violation and revocation—a process by which an individual under parole supervision is returned to incarceration for a new criminal charge or a noncriminal violation of their conditions of release. ..." – By Benjamin J. Mackey and Danielle S. Rudes

Indigenous Justice in Oceania and North America

"All of these lands, now called countries, are Indigenous peoples’ lands and territories; however, Eurocentric laws and policies have colonized Indigenous peoples in their own lands and territories. So, it is important to distinguish between Indigenous justice systems and the Eurocentric criminal legal system and to set out the specific differences of worldview between the two legal systems. ..." – By Beverley Jacobs

What's New to the OREs

In September 2021, 87 new full articles and 15 revised articles across 21 disciplines have been published on the Oxford Research Encyclopedias platform. Explore the recently published articles now.

Two More Encyclopedias Available via Subscription and Perpetual Access

On September 29, the Oxford Research Encyclopedias of Anthropology and Planetary Science will be available via subscription and perpetual access. After a successful free period during development, the OREs provide in-depth overviews of the major areas of research and will continue to grow with the field over time. If you're a librarian, explore Subscriber Services to learn how to provide access to the OREs for your institution. If you're not a librarian, you can recommend the OREs to your librarian here.

Why the Oxford Research Encyclopedia?

With today’s overabundance of information, and misinformation, students and researchers alike can be overwhelmed in identifying what’s trustworthy, what’s up-to-date, and what’s accurate..

Explore by Discipline

Working with international communities of scholars across all fields of study, we are developing new comprehensive collections of in-depth, peer-reviewed summaries on an ever-growing range of topics..

For Librarians

Oxford University Press offers a variety of tools to help you promote your access to the Oxford Research Encyclopedias and get the most out of these resources.

Recently Published

Browse recently published articles by month, including summaries and previews of forthcoming full-text articles.