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"The relationship between racial/ethnic minorities and police has been characterized throughout history by high-profile incidents, civil unrest, and calls for reform. Issues surrounding police mistreatment of minorities have been a perennial problem across the United States, highlighted within the last decade by the deaths of Trayvon Martin, Tamir Rice, Eric Garner, Michael Brown, Freddie Gray, Philando Castile, Ahmaud Arbery, Breonna Taylor, and George Floyd. ..." – By Jennifer H. Peck and Richard L. Elligson
"Gangs, crime, and race are among the most fraught and politically charged topics in both the realm of social science and in broader public discourse in the United States. This article examines the relationships between these phenomena as they have evolved within the context of the major political-economic transformations of the last century or so, particularly the rise and fall of the urban industrial economy. Making sense of this history will help clarify how issues of gangs, crime, and race have been shaped and reshaped by historical developments and how we might best apprehend their nexuses, both historically and in the contemporary moment. ..." – By Roberto R. Aspholm
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