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"Left realism emerged in the mid-1980s as a criminological theory of the Left. In 1979 Margaret Thatcher’s Conservative government had been voted into power in the United Kingdom on a largely law-and-order ticket. Thatcher led an administration of the radical Right, close in politics to Ronald Reagan’s Republicanism in the United States, bound to laissez-faire economics, to incentives for work, cutting back on the welfare state, and a heavily punitive response to street crime..." – By Jayne Mooney
"Gangs, crime, and race are among the most fraught and politically charged topics in both the realm of social science and in broader public discourse in the United States. This article examines the relationships between these phenomena as they have evolved within the context of the major political-economic transformations of the last century or so, particularly the rise and fall of the urban industrial economy. Making sense of this history will help clarify how issues of gangs, crime, and race have been shaped and reshaped by historical developments and how we might best apprehend their nexuses, both historically and in the contemporary moment. ..." – By Roberto R. Aspholm
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