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"However, scholars generally agree upon one key aspect of a hate crime. The victim must be targeted due to actual or perceived membership in a particular social group that the offender holds a bias against and the victim is interchangeable with others who belong to their perceived or actual group (Garland, 2010). It should be noted that any single hate crime incident can involve multiple motivations. ..." – By Keller G. Sheppard, Nathaniel L. Lawshe, and Jack McDevitt
"Throughout history, the lines between the systems of criminal and immigration law, and between the agents charged with their enforcement, have sometimes been blurred, often to facilitate the targeting of undesirable racial groups. During the 1920s, for example, federal criminal law was expanded to include unauthorized immigration as a criminal offense and by 1930, U.S. attorneys had prosecuted more than 44,000 cases of improper entry..." – By Jennifer M. Chacón
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