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date: 06 December 2023

The Harms and Crimes Against Terrestrial Wildlife (Nonhuman Animals)locked

The Harms and Crimes Against Terrestrial Wildlife (Nonhuman Animals)locked

  • Rebecca W.Y. WongRebecca W.Y. WongDepartment of Social and Behavioural Sciences, City University of Hong Kong


Nonhuman animals are widely exploited and abused by human beings. While some of these exploitative actions (or inactions) are punishable by law, many actions are not legally defined, and these actions continue to be carried out despite the harm they cause to nonhuman beings. It is incorrect to assume that actions that are lawful cannot harm nonhuman beings or the environment, and the sociolegal approach asks, “What is the harm involved?” rather than “Is this lawful?” This approach departs from a human-centered focus on environmental crime, which results in more victims (nonhuman beings or the natural environment) being identified.

Ultimately, changes in attitudes and behavior are crucial for environmental conservation. Environmental campaigns should be more culturally sensitive and free from racial stereotypes to be effective in driving changes.


  • Critical Criminology

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