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The Death Penalty in the 21st Century  

Daniel LaChance

Published Online:
Feb 2019
The dawn of the 21st century marked a turning point in the history of the American death penalty. Politically, the death penalty seemed vulnerable. A wave of abolitionism not seen since ... More

Defensible Space  

Robert I. Mawby

Published Online:
Apr 2017
While the term “defensible space” is widely referenced in literature on situational crime pre vention and Crime Prevention Through Environmental Design, it is commonly mentioned in ... More

Deportation and Immigration Enforcement  

David C. Brotherton and Sarah Tosh

Published Online:
Sep 2018
While deportation as a practice has roots that reach far back into history, the state’s removal of immigrants in the modern era is unprecedented, in terms of both its mechanisms and its ... More

Detecting Healthcare Fraud and Abuse in the United States  

Paul Jesilow and Bryan Burton

Published Online:
Sep 2017
Healthcare fraud involves wide-ranging illegal behaviors. It includes such activities as individual physicians who bill insurance companies or the government for services that were never ... More

Developmental and Life-Course Perspectives on Gangs  

Molly Buchanan, Elise T. Simonsen, and Marvin D. Krohn

Published Online:
Feb 2019
With distinct advances since the 1980s, developmental, life-course criminology has expanded to become one of the most prominent subdivisions in the field of criminology, as the knowledge ... More

Developmental Origins of Antisocial Behavior  

Richard E. Tremblay

Published Online:
Sep 2018
Most studies conducted on the development of antisocial behavior focused on school children and attempted to understand how children learn to steal and aggress others. Results from ... More

Developmental Targeted Prevention of Conduct Disorder  

Frank Vitaro and Richard E. Tremblay

Published Online:
Dec 2016
Traditionally, the term targeted prevention refers to interventions designed to prevent the development of adjustment problems in individuals by reducing risk factors or by implementing ... More

Disciplinary Segregation in Prison  

Benjamin Steiner

Published Online:
Jan 2018
Disciplinary segregation is a punishment that prison officials impose in response to inmate violations of prison rules such as assaulting another inmate or disrespecting an officer. ... More

Documentaries about Crime and Criminal Justice  

Jamie Bennett

Published Online:
Apr 2017
Documentary films have significant appeal because of their claim to represent truth and authenticity. Within the criminal justice system, they are important not only because of the public ... More

Drugs and Popular Culture  

Dimitri A. Bogazianos

Published Online:
Mar 2017
While criminological analyses of drugs and popular culture often focus on media constructions of drug scares and epidemics, they also draw from a wide range of interrelated influences, ... More

Economic Crises, Common Crime, and Penality  

José A. Brandariz and Ignacio González-Sánchez

Published Online:
Nov 2018
The influence of economic crises on crime and penality is one of the fundamental issues in economic analysis of the punitive field, and the topic has been explored from various ... More

Electronic Monitoring  

Julie Brancale, Thomas G. Blomberg, and William D. Bales

Published Online:
Aug 2018
Subject:
Corrections
The movements of accused and convicted offenders in many countries around the world are increasingly being monitored with electronic supervision tools. Individuals can be placed on ... More

Enemy Penology  

Susanne Krasmann

Published Online:
Jan 2018
When Guenther Jakobs introduced the concept of “enemy criminal law” (Feindstrafrecht), or enemy penology, into the legal debate, this was due to a concern with the increasingly ... More

Environmental Crime  

Carole Gibbs and Rachel Boratto

Published Online:
Mar 2017
Environmental crime is a complex and ambiguous term for several reasons. It is sometimes used as an umbrella term for crimes related to biodiversity, wildlife, animals, natural resources, ... More

Errors of Justice in Policing  

Brian Forst

Published Online:
Apr 2019
Subject:
Policing
Errors of justice are a serious problem, and the police contribute substantially to them. Much can be done to reduce these errors, involving overreaction, underreaction, and misreaction ... More

Ethnography and the Study of Gangs  

Robert J. Durán

Published Online:
Feb 2018
The study of gangs has emerged alongside the use of a research methodology known as ethnography. Ethnography is based on participant observation and interviews to provide a detailed ... More

The Eurogang Program of Research  

Finn-Aage Esbensen and Cheryl L. Maxson

Published Online:
Mar 2018
The Eurogang Program of Research is a loosely knit network of researchers and policymakers with an interest in better understanding troublesome youth groups. While the group is guided by a ... More

European Border and Coast Guard (Frontex): Security, Democracy, and Rights at the EU Border  

Giuseppe Campesi

Published Online:
Feb 2018
The European Border and Coast Guard (EBCG) was officially launched in October 2016. In the European Commission’s view, it marks a milestone in the history of the integrated management of ... More

Examining the School-to-Prison Pipeline Metaphor  

Kayla Crawley and Paul Hirschfield

The school-to-prison pipeline (STPP) is a commonly used metaphor that was developed to describe the many ways in which schools have become a conduit to the juvenile and criminal justice ... More

Executive Clemency in the United States  

Margaret Colgate Love

Published Online:
Jul 2018
Executive clemency has a rich history in the United States, both as an agent of justice and as a tool of politics. A presidential power to pardon was included in Article II of the ... More

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