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Online Fraud  

Cassandra Cross

Online publication date:
Jan 2019
Each year, millions of individuals worldwide find themselves victims of online fraud. Whether it is responding to a fraudulent email with bank account details or being defrauded through a ... More

Organized Child Sexual Abuse in the Media  

Michael Salter

Online publication date:
Jan 2017
Organized sexual abuse refers to the coordinated sexual abuse of multiple children by multiple perpetrators. It has proved to be a particularly controversial form of sexual abuse. Initial ... More

Organized Crime Mythologies  

Patricia (Paddy) Rawlinson

Online publication date:
Dec 2016
Organized crime is one of the most popular topics of media attention within the crime genre, providing a plethora of fictional representations and factual explanations for popular ... More

Pathways to Crime  

Breanna Boppre, Emily J. Salisbury, and Jaclyn Parker

Online publication date:
Jan 2018
Scholarship in criminology has focused on individuals’ pathways to crime—how life experiences, often beginning during childhood, lead to criminality in adolescence or adulthood. General ... More

Pecuniary Punishments  

Patricia Faraldo-Cabana

Online publication date:
Jan 2018
The genealogy of pecuniary punishments is a story of constant reformulation in response to shifting political pressures, changes in institutional and administrative arrangements, and ... More

Philosophies of Punishment  

Jerry Cederblom

Subject:
Sentencing
This is an advance summary of a forthcoming article in the Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Criminology and Criminal Justice. Please check back later for the full article. ... More

Place-Based Simulation Modeling: Agent-Based Modeling and Virtual Environments  

Nick Malleson, Alison Heppenstall, and Andrew Crooks

Online publication date:
Jan 2018
Since the earliest geographical explorations of criminal phenomena, scientists have come to the realization that crime occurrences can often be best explained by analysis at local scales. ... More

Place Managers and Crime Places  

John E. Eck

Place management theory—a part of routine activity theory—explains why a relatively few places have a great deal of crime while most places have little or no crime. The explanation is the ... More

Police Cooperation Across Jurisdictions  

Frederic Lemieux

Online publication date:
Sep 2018
Subject:
Policing
Since the end of the Second World War, police cooperation has experienced several transformations affecting the conduct of law enforcement operations across jurisdictions. These critical ... More

Police Corruption  

Leslie Holmes

This is an advance summary of a forthcoming article in the Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Criminology and Criminal Justice. Please check back later for the full article. ... More

Police Dramas on Television  

Ken Dowler

Online publication date:
Nov 2016
Since the inception of television, portrayal of crime and justice has been a central feature on television. In particular, the police are featured as prominent characters in many fictional ... More

Police, Media, and Popular Culture  

Alyce McGovern and Nickie D. Phillips

Online publication date:
Aug 2017
The relationship between the police and the media is complex, multidimensional, and contingent. Since the development of modern-day policing, the police and the media have interacted with ... More

Police Officer Suicide  

John M. Violanti

Online publication date:
Oct 2018
Subject:
Policing
All too often we emphasize the dangers of police work, but seem to neglect the hidden psychological danger of this profession. Suicide is a consequence of that hidden danger. It is a clear ... More

Police Training and Education  

John DeCarlo

Online publication date:
Apr 2019
Subject:
Policing
The issue of educational entry requirements for police officers has been a perennial one. Since August Vollmer first broached the topic of police education as a serious consideration, ... More

Police Violence  

Jenna Milani, Ben Bradford, and Jonathan Jackson

Online publication date:
Mar 2018
Subject:
Policing
The ability of the police to assert social control and reproduce social order depends, crucially, on the capacity to use force to achieve these ends—whether when restraining someone ... More

Policing American Gangs and Gang Members  

Madeleine Novich

Online publication date:
Mar 2018
Gangs have been subjects of extensive empirical research since the 1920s. Scholarly interest in gangs was largely due to gang members’ increased likelihood of engaging in delinquent ... More

Policing and Gang Violence Prevention  

Victor Mora

Subject:
Policing
This is an advance summary of a forthcoming article in the Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Criminology and Criminal Justice. Please check back later for the full article. ... More

Policing Sex Workers  

Susan Dewey

Online publication date:
May 2018
Subject:
Policing
Regulatory and legal approaches to prostitution are subject to considerable debate among researchers, policymakers, and those tasked with the everyday enforcement of measures intended to ... More

Political Corruption and State Crime  

Clayton Peoples and James E. Sutton

Online publication date:
Apr 2017
The state is responsible for maintaining law and order in society and protecting the people. Sometimes it fails to fulfill these responsibilities; in other cases, it actively harms people. ... More

Political Ideologies and Penality  

Zelia A. Gallo

Online publication date:
Aug 2018
The literature on contemporary Western punishment presents us with a number of possible approaches to political ideologies and penality. The first approach requires us to ask what ... More

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