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Anomie Theory  

Jón Gunnar Bernburg

Online publication date:
Mar 2019
Originating in the tradition of classical sociology (Durkheim, Merton), anomie theory posits how broad social conditions influence deviant behavior and crime. The French sociologist Émile ... More

Biosocial Theories in Criminology  

Jessica Wells and Anthony Walsh

Online publication date:
Feb 2019
While the roots of criminology largely lie in sociological explanations for crime and delinquency, a resurgence has begun wherein human behavior is explained as a product of both ... More

The Characteristics of Illegal Markets  

Matías Dewey

Online publication date:
Feb 2019
The phenomenon of illegal markets is pervasive. The circulation of illegal goods and services reaches all social segments, crosses national boundaries, and produces enormous revenues. ... More

Crime, Diversity, Culture, and Cultural Defense  

Clara Rigoni

Online publication date:
Jul 2018
Contemporary societies are culturally diverse. This diversity can be the result of different historical and social processes and might affect the uniformity and efficiency of criminal ... More

Ethnography and the Study of Gangs  

Robert J. Durán

Online publication date:
Feb 2018
The study of gangs has emerged alongside the use of a research methodology known as ethnography. Ethnography is based on participant observation and interviews to provide a detailed ... More

The Extent and Nature of Gang Crime  

Lauren Magee and Chris Melde

Online publication date:
Apr 2018
Street gangs have been the focus of attention for over a century, largely due to their reputation for involvement in illegal activities, especially violence. Indeed, gangs use this ... More

Gang Joining  

James A. Densley

Online publication date:
Aug 2018
This article examines the who, what, where, when, why, and how of gang joining. The question of what youth join when they join gangs speaks to the contested nature of gang definitions and ... More

Gang Organization and Gang Types  

Christian L. Bolden

Online publication date:
Mar 2018
Gang organization has been an aspect of research that is often explored and debated. The concept of organization is intertwined with questions of whether gangs have leaders, whether gangs ... More

Gangs and Globalization  

Alistair Fraser and Elke Van Hellemont

It has been a century since Frederic Thrasher researched his pioneering text on youth gangs in Chicago. In it he depicts gangs as a street-based phenomenon that emerged from the combined ... More

Gangs and Social Media  

David C. Pyrooz and Richard K. Moule, Jr.

It was once presumed that costs of Internet adoption were too great for gang members to absorb. They lacked the financial resources to access the Internet or the technological know-how to ... More

Gangs and Violence  

Haley Bullard and Shannon Reid

Online publication date:
Apr 2019
Much of the ongoing concern about the presence of gangs and gang members in the community has to do with the association between street gangs and violence. Decades of research on street ... More

Gender and Gang Involvement  

Dana Peterson

Online publication date:
Jun 2018
Sex and gender are often conflated, but there are important distinctions between the two. This is true also with terms related to gender identity, including masculinities and femininities ... More

Genocide and Ethnic Cleansing  

Brooke B. Chambers and Joachim J. Savelsberg

Genocide and ethnic cleansing are among the most deadly human-made catastrophes. Together with other forms of government violence, such as war crimes and crimes against humanity, the death ... More

Global Development and Crime  

Mahesh K. Nalla, Gregory J. Howard, and Graeme R. Newman

One common claim about crime is that it is driven in particular ways by development. Whereas the classic civilization thesis asserts that development will yield declining crime rates, the ... More

Group Processes Within Gangs  

Timothy R. Lauger

Online publication date:
Mar 2019
Street gangs are, by definition, social groups that contain patterns of interactions between gang members, associates, and other gangs in their social environment. The structure and content ... More

The History of Gangs and Gang Research  

Mark S. Fleisher

Online publication date:
Nov 2018
Radical culture change instigated by conflict among diverse cultural groups has had adverse social and psychological effects witnessed by the rise of youth gangs. A close look at the ... More

Immigration and Crime  

Frances Bernat

In the context of crime, victimization, and immigration in the United States, research shows that people are afraid of immigrants because they think immigrants are a threat to their safety ... More

Lethal Violence: A Global View on Homicide  

Dietrich Oberwittler

Online publication date:
Aug 2019
As the most serious crime, homicide is both relevant and suitable for cross-national comparisons. The global homicide rate of ca. 6 per 100,000 people is an average of hugely diverging ... More

Pathways to Crime  

Breanna Boppre, Emily J. Salisbury, and Jaclyn Parker

Online publication date:
Jan 2018
Scholarship in criminology has focused on individuals’ pathways to crime—how life experiences, often beginning during childhood, lead to criminality in adolescence or adulthood. General ... More

Police Response to Juvenile Gangs and Gang Violence  

Victor Mora

Online publication date:
Mar 2020
Street gangs are prevalent throughout the United States. Recently, law enforcement agencies estimated there are approximately 30,000 gangs and 850,000 gang members across the United States. ... More

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