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Anomie Theory  

Jón Gunnar Bernburg

Online publication date:
Mar 2019
Originating in the tradition of classical sociology (Durkheim, Merton), anomie theory posits how broad social conditions influence deviant behavior and crime. The French sociologist Émile ... More

Biosocial Theories in Criminology  

Jessica Wells and Anthony Walsh

Online publication date:
Feb 2019
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Criminal Behavior, Criminological Theory
While the roots of criminology largely lie in sociological explanations for crime and delinquency, a resurgence has begun wherein human behavior is explained as a product of both ... More

The Characteristics of Illegal Markets  

Matías Dewey

Online publication date:
Feb 2019
The phenomenon of illegal markets is pervasive. The circulation of illegal goods and services reaches all social segments, crosses national boundaries, and produces enormous revenues. ... More

Control Balance Theory  

Charles R. Tittle

Online publication date:
Feb 2018
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Criminological Theory
Control balance theory (CBT) was developed in the mid-1990s, primarily to illustrate a particular method for building integrated theory and to show how general theories are useful in ... More

Corporate Crime and the State  

Adam Ghazi-Tehrani

Online publication date:
Sep 2018
State-corporate crime is defined as criminal acts that occur when one or more institutions of political governance pursue a goal in direct cooperation with one or more institutions of ... More

Critical Criminologies  

Walter S. DeKeseredy

There is no single critical criminology. Rather, there are critical criminologies with different histories, methods, theories, and political perspectives. However, critical criminology is ... More

Critical Criminology and the Critique of Domination, Inequality and Injustice  

David O. Friedrichs

Online publication date:
Mar 2018
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Criminological Theory, Critical Criminology
Critical criminology has achieved a substantial presence within the field of criminology over the past several decades. Critical criminology has produced a framework for the understanding ... More

Developmental and Life-Course Perspectives on Gangs  

Molly Buchanan, Elise T. Simonsen, and Marvin D. Krohn

Online publication date:
Feb 2019
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Criminological Theory, Juvenile Justice
With distinct advances since the 1980s, developmental, life-course criminology has expanded to become one of the most prominent subdivisions in the field of criminology, as the knowledge ... More

Developmental and Life-Course Theories of Crime  

Tara Renae McGee and David P. Farrington

Online publication date:
Sep 2019
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Criminological Theory
Developmental and life-course theories of crime are collectively characterized by their goal of explaining the onset, persistence, and desistance of offending behavior over the life-course. ... More

Economic Crises, Common Crime, and Penality  

José A. Brandariz and Ignacio González-Sánchez

Online publication date:
Nov 2018
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Criminological Theory, Critical Criminology
The influence of economic crises on crime and penality is one of the fundamental issues in economic analysis of the punitive field, and the topic has been explored from various perspectives ... More

Enemy Penology  

Susanne Krasmann

Online publication date:
Jan 2018
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Criminological Theory, Critical Criminology
When Guenther Jakobs introduced the concept of “enemy criminal law” (Feindstrafrecht), or enemy penology, into the legal debate, this was due to a concern with the increasingly anticipatory ... More

Extortion and Extortion Racketeering  

Atanas Rusev

Online publication date:
Nov 2018
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Criminological Theory, White Collar Crime
Extortion as a crime has long attracted the interest of scholars, and much effort has been put into coining a precise definition that would allow distinguishing it from other similar ... More

Gang Joining  

James A. Densley

Online publication date:
Aug 2018
This article examines the who, what, where, when, why, and how of gang joining. The question of what youth join when they join gangs speaks to the contested nature of gang definitions and ... More

Gang Organization and Gang Types  

Christian L. Bolden

Online publication date:
Mar 2018
Gang organization has been an aspect of research that is often explored and debated. The concept of organization is intertwined with questions of whether gangs have leaders, whether gangs ... More

Gangs and Globalization  

Alistair Fraser and Elke Van Hellemont

Online publication date:
Feb 2020
It has been a century since Frederic Thrasher researched his pioneering text on youth gangs in Chicago. In it he depicts gangs as a street-based phenomenon that emerged from the combined ... More

Gangs and Social Media  

David C. Pyrooz and Richard K. Moule, Jr.

Online publication date:
Apr 2019
It was once presumed that costs of Internet adoption were too great for gang members to absorb. They lacked the financial resources to access the Internet or the technological know-how to ... More

General Strain Theory  

Timothy Brezina

Online publication date:
Feb 2017
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Criminological Theory
General strain theory (GST) provides a unique explanation of crime and delinquency. In contrast to control and learning theories, GST focuses explicitly on negative treatment by others and ... More

Global Security Surveillance  

Keith Guzik and Gary T. Marx

Online publication date:
Jan 2019
Recent literature at the intersections of surveillance, security, and globalization trace the contours of global security surveillance (GSS), a distinct form of social control that combines ... More

Group Processes Within Gangs  

Timothy R. Lauger

Online publication date:
Mar 2019
Street gangs are, by definition, social groups that contain patterns of interactions between gang members, associates, and other gangs in their social environment. The structure and content ... More

Hyperincarceration and Indigeneity  

Thalia Anthony and Harry Blagg

Online publication date:
Feb 2020
Indigenous people have been subject to policies that disproportionately incarcerate them since the genesis of colonization of their lands. Incarceration is one node of a field of colonial ... More

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