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Attitudes and Public Opinion About Punishment  

Kathryn L. Schwaeble and Jody Sundt

Online publication date:
Jan 2020
The United States is unique in its reliance on incarceration. In 2018 the United States had the largest prison population in the world—more than 2.1 million people—and incarcerated 655 per ... More

Capital Punishment  

Paul Kaplan

Online publication date:
Feb 2019
The death penalty, also referred to as capital punishment, is the process whereby a state government orders a sentence of death for a person found guilty of a particular set of criminal ... More

Capital Punishment, Closure, and Media  

Jody Madeira

Online publication date:
Nov 2016
In contemporary society, “closure” refers to “end to a traumatic event or an emotional process” (Berns, 2011, pp. 18–19)—and, in the more specific context of capital punishment, controversy ... More

Collateral Sanctions  

Alec C. Ewald

Online publication date:
Dec 2017
Subject:
Corrections
Collateral sanctions are legal restrictions on the rights and privileges of people who have experienced contact with the criminal justice system, particularly contact resulting in ... More

Correctional Classification and Security  

Sarah Tahamont and Nicole E. Frisch

Online publication date:
Feb 2019
Subject:
Corrections
Correctional classification is at the core of the prison experience. Classification processes determine what, with whom, and how an inmate will spend his or her time while incarcerated. ... More

Correctional Programming and Gender  

Gina Fedock and Stephanie S. Covington

Online publication date:
Dec 2017
As the number of women under correctional supervision continues to increase in the United States, attention to gender within correctional programming is crucial as women offenders present ... More

Disciplinary Segregation in Prison  

Benjamin Steiner

Online publication date:
Jan 2018
Disciplinary segregation is a punishment that prison officials impose in response to inmate violations of prison rules such as assaulting another inmate or disrespecting an officer. ... More

Electronic Monitoring  

Julie Brancale, Thomas G. Blomberg, and William D. Bales

Online publication date:
Aug 2018
Subject:
Corrections
The movements of accused and convicted offenders in many countries around the world are increasingly being monitored with electronic supervision tools. Individuals can be placed on ... More

Executive Clemency in the United States  

Margaret Colgate Love

Online publication date:
Jul 2018
Executive clemency has a rich history in the United States, both as an agent of justice and as a tool of politics. A presidential power to pardon was included in Article II of the ... More

Fines and Monetary Sanctions  

Alexes Harris and Frank Edwards

Online publication date:
Apr 2017
Subject:
Corrections
Despite the central role that fines and other fiscal penalties play in systems of criminal justice, they have received relatively little scholarly attention. Court systems impose fines and ... More

Gender and Community-Based Correctional Programs for Women  

Nicole Kaufman

Online publication date:
Jun 2018
In the contemporary era of “tough on crime” policies and the globalized drug war, the number of women in the criminal justice system has increased across several countries. Women’s ... More

Gender and Punishment  

Lynne Haney and Lili Dao

Online publication date:
Feb 2018
In many respects, gender has been missing from the enormous literature on the form and focus of state systems of punishment. This is true in both the historical accounts on shifts in penal ... More

Immigration Detention and Punishment  

Sarah Turnbull

Online publication date:
Mar 2017
Subject:
Corrections
The use of detention for immigration purposes is a carceral trend that continues to increase across the world and is a phenomenon no longer limited to so-called western countries or the ... More

Incarceration Effects on Families  

Sara Wakefield and Janet Garcia-Hallett

Online publication date:
Mar 2017
Subject:
Corrections
The rapid rise in the incarceration rate, most notably in the United States over the last four decades, has drawn greater attention to the disabilities imposed by incarceration experiences ... More

Incarceration Rates in an International Perspective  

Marc Mauer

Online publication date:
Apr 2017
Subject:
Corrections
A nation’s rate of incarceration is the number of people incarcerated as a proportion of its total population. Internationally, there is broad variation in the degree to which nations ... More

LGBT People in Prison: Management Strategies, Human Rights Violations, and Political Mobilization  

Jason A. Brown and Valerie Jenness

In the 21st century, an unprecedented rise in the visibility of and social acceptance for lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) people has been accompanied by exponential growth in ... More

Life Without Parole Sentencing  

Christopher Seeds

Online publication date:
Aug 2019
Life without parole sentencing refers to laws, policies, and practices concerning lifetime prison sentences that also preclude release by parole. While sentences to imprisonment for life ... More

Mass Incarceration in the United States: From Punishment to Public Health  

Ernest Drucker

Online publication date:
Jul 2019
Subject:
Corrections
Mass imprisonment in the United States is an epidemic that has spread across five generations affecting millions of individuals, their families, and hundreds of communities. The United ... More

Philosophies of Punishment  

Jerry Cederblom

Online publication date:
Feb 2020
Numerous philosophical theories purport to justify a system of legal punishment. It is doubtful, however, that any of them successfully answer these three questions: Why punish? Whom to ... More

Positive Criminology: Theory, Research, and Practice  

Natti Ronel and Ety Elisha

Positive criminology is an innovative perspective that underlies existing theories and models emphasizing the positive forces that influence and assist individuals at risk and offenders in ... More

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