The Economics of Long-Term Care
- Norman Bannenberg, Norman BannenbergChair of Health Economics, University of Duisburg-Essen
- Martin KarlssonMartin KarlssonChair of Health Economics, University of Duisburg-Essen
- and Hendrik SchmitzHendrik SchmitzCenter for International Economics, University of Paderborn
Long-term care (LTC) is arguably the sector of the economy that is most sensitive to population aging: its recipients are typically older than 80 years whereas most care providers are of working age. Thus, a number of ongoing societal trends interact in the determination of market outcomes in the LTC sector: trends in longevity and healthy life expectancy interact with changing family structures and norms in shaping the need for services. The supply side is additionally affected by changes in employment patterns, in particular regarding the transition into retirement, as well as by cross-regional imbalances in demographic and economic conditions. The economic literature on long-term care considers many of these issues, aims at understanding this steadily growing sector, and at guiding policy. Key economic studies on long-term care address determinants of the demand for long-term care, like disability and socio-economic status; the two most important providers: informal family caregivers and nursing homes; and the financing and funding of LTC.