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Anthropometrics: The Intersection of Economics and Human Biology  

John Komlos

Anthropometrics is a research program that explores the extent to which economic processes affect human biological processes using height and weight as markers. This agenda differs from ... More

China’s Economic Development  

Lawrence J. Lau

Online publication date:
May 2020
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Economic Development
Chinese real gross domestic product (GDP) grew from US$369 billion in 1978 to US$12.7 trillion in 2017 (in 2017 prices and exchange rate), at almost 10% per annum, making the country the ... More

Corruption and Development: A Reappraisal  

Alina Mungiu-Pippidi and Till Hartmann

Online publication date:
Jul 2019
Corruption and development are two mutually related concepts equally shifting in meaning across time. The predominant 21st-century view of government that regards corruption as inacceptable ... More

Creative Destruction, Technology Disruption, and Growth  

Thomas Clarke

The origins of modern technological change provide the context necessary to understand present-day technological transformation, to investigate the impact of the new digital technologies, ... More

Early and Medieval Periods in German Economic History  

Thilo R. Huning and Fabian Wahl

Online publication date:
Aug 2020
The study of the Holy Roman Empire, a medieval state on the territory of modern-day Germany and Central Europe, has attracted generations of qualitative economic historians and quantitative ... More

Economic Development in Spain, 1815–2017  

Leandro Prados de la Escosura and Blanca Sánchez-Alonso

Online publication date:
Feb 2020
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Economic Development, Economic History
In assessments of modern-day Spain’s economic progress and living standards, inadequate natural resources, inefficient institutions, lack of education and entrepreneurship, and foreign ... More

Economic Growth in the United States, 1790 to 1860  

Thomas Weiss

Online publication date:
Dec 2019
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Economic Development, Economic History
In the early 21st century, the U.S. economy stood at or very near the top of any ranking of the world’s economies, more obviously so in terms of gross domestic product (GDP), but also when ... More

Exchange Rate Policies and Economic Development  

Eduardo Levy Yeyati

Online publication date:
May 2019
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Economic Development
While traditional economic literature often sees nominal variables as irrelevant for the real economy, there is a vast body of analytical and empirical economic work that recognizes that, ... More

Financial History of Sub-Saharan Africa  

Leigh Gardner

Online publication date:
Sep 2020
African financial history is often neglected in research on the history of global financial systems, and in its turn research on African financial systems in the past often fails to explore ... More

Financial Inclusion and Human Development  

Maria Soledad Martinez Peria and Mu Yang Shin

Online publication date:
Mar 2020
The link between financial inclusion and human development is examined here. Using cross-country data, the behavior of variables that try to capture these concepts is examined and ... More

The Growth of Health Spending in the United States From 1776 to 2026  

Thomas E. Getzen

Online publication date:
Jun 2019
During the 18th and 19th centuries, medical spending in the United States rose slowly, on average about .25% faster than gross domestic product (GDP), and varied widely between rural and ... More

The Indian Economy After Independence  

Tirthankar Roy

Online publication date:
Mar 2020
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Economic Development, Economic History
The Indian Union, from the time of independence from British colonial rule, 1947, until now, has undergone shifts in the trajectory of economic change and the political context of economic ... More

Institutions and Development: An Overview of Case Studies in China and India  

Pranab Bardhan

Online publication date:
Jan 2020
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Economic Development
In contrast with the existing cross-country literature on institutions and development the overview in this article focuses instead on case studies of institutions at the disaggregated ... More

International Reserves, Exchange Rates, and Monetary Policy: From the Trilemma to the Quadrilemma  

Joshua Aizenman

Online publication date:
Jul 2019
The links of international reserves, exchange rates, and monetary policy can be understood through the lens of a modern incarnation of the “impossible trinity” (aka the “trilemma”), based ... More

Machine Learning in Policy Evaluation: New Tools for Causal Inference  

Noémi Kreif and Karla DiazOrdaz

Online publication date:
Jul 2019
While machine learning (ML) methods have received a lot of attention in recent years, these methods are primarily for prediction. Empirical researchers conducting policy evaluations are, on ... More

Mergers and Acquisitions: Long-Run Performance and Success Factors  

Luc Renneboog and Cara Vansteenkiste

Online publication date:
Aug 2020
Despite the aggregate value of M&A market transactions amounting to several trillions dollars on an annual basis, acquiring firms often underperform relative to non-acquiring firms, ... More

Political Economy of Reform  

Stuti Khemani

Online publication date:
Jan 2020
“Reform” in the economics literature refers to changes in government policies or institutional rules because status-quo policies and institutions are not working well to achieve the goals ... More

Shared Prosperity: Concepts, Data, and Some Policy Examples  

Francisco H. G. Ferreira, Emanuela Galasso, and Mario Negre

Online publication date:
Mar 2020
“Shared prosperity” is a common phrase in current development policy discourse. Its most widely used operational definition—the growth rate in the average income of the poorest 40% of a ... More

Studying Long-Term Changes in the Economy and Society Using the HISCO Family of Occupational Measures  

Marco H.D. van Leeuwen

Online publication date:
May 2020
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Economic Development, Economic History
Occupations are a key characteristic for analyzing momentous changes in economy and society. Classical economists rooted their analyses in occupational divisions, emphasizing the division ... More

The Economics of Early Interventions Aimed at Child Development  

Samuel Berlinski and Marcos Vera-Hernández

Online publication date:
Aug 2019
A set of policies is at the center of the agenda on early childhood development: parenting programs, childcare regulation and subsidies, cash and in-kind transfers, and parental leave ... More

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