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Economics of Rural–Urban Migration  

Pei-Ju Liao and Chong Kee Yip

In the past century, many developing countries have experienced rapid economic development, which is usually associated with a process of structural transformation and urbanization. ... More

The Economics of Smoking Prevention  

Philip DeCicca, Donald S. Kenkel, Michael F. Lovenheim, and Erik Nesson

Published Online:
Apr 2018
Smoking prevention has been a key component of health policy in developed nations for over half a century. Public policies to reduce the physical harm attributed to cigarette smoking, both ... More

Effectiveness and Availability of Treatment for Substance Use Disorders  

Dominic Hodgkin and Hilary S. Connery

Published Online:
Oct 2018
Drug and alcohol use disorders, also called substance use disorders (SUD), are among the major health problems facing many countries, contributing a substantial burden in terms of ... More

The Effect of Education on Health and Mortality: A Review of Experimental and Quasi-Experimental Evidence  

Titus Galama, Adriana Lleras-Muney, and Hans van Kippersluis

Published Online:
May 2018
Education is strongly associated with better health and longer lives. However, the extent to which education causes health and longevity is widely debated. We develop a human capital ... More

The Effect of Government Policy on Pharmaceutical Drug Innovation  

Ayman Chit and Paul Grootendorst

Published Online:
Jun 2019
Drug companies are profit-maximizing entities, and profit is, by definition, revenue less cost. Here we review the impact of government policies that affect sales revenues earned on newly ... More

The Effects of Monetary Policy Announcements  

Chao Gu, Han Han, and Randall Wright

The effects of news (i.e., information innovations) are studied in dynamic general equilibrium models where liquidity matters. As a leading example, news can be announcements about ... More

The Effects of Prenatal Care on Birth Outcomes: Reconciling a Messy Literature  

Hope Corman, Dhaval Dave, and Nancy E. Reichman

Published Online:
Apr 2019
Prenatal care, one of the most frequently used forms of healthcare in the United States, involves a series of encounters during the gestational period, educates women about pregnancy, ... More

The Employment Effects of Minimum Wages: Some Questions We Need to Answer  

David Neumark

Published Online:
Mar 2018
The literature on the employment effects of minimum wages is about a century old, and includes hundreds of studies. Yet the debate among researchers about the employment effects of minimum ... More

Equality of Opportunity in Health and Healthcare  

Florence Jusot and Sandy Tubeuf

Recent developments in the analysis of inequality in health and healthcare have turned their interest into an explicit normative understanding of the sources of inequalities that calls ... More

Estimation and Inference for Cointegrating Regressions  

Martin Wagner

Widely used modified least squares estimators for estimation and inference in cointegrating regressions are discussed. The standard case with cointegration in the I(1) setting is examined ... More

Evaluation of Mental Health Interventions  

Martin Knapp

Published Online:
Jul 2019
Mental illnesses are highly prevalent and can have considerable, enduring consequences for individuals, families, communities, and economies. Despite these high prevalence rates, mental ... More

The Evolution of Forecast Density Combinations in Economics  

Knut Are Aastveit, James Mitchell, Francesco Ravazzolo, and Herman K. van Dijk

Increasingly, professional forecasters and academic researchers in economics present model-based and subjective or judgment-based forecasts that are accompanied by some measure of ... More

The Evolution of Mental Health Policy and Economics  

Sherry Glied and Richard Frank

Published Online:
Mar 2018
Mental health economics addresses problems that are common to all of health economics, but that occur with greater severity in this context. Several characteristics of mental health ... More

Exchange Rate Policies and Economic Development  

Eduardo Levy Yeyati

Published Online:
May 2019
While traditional economic literature often sees nominal variables as irrelevant for the real economy, there is a vast body of analytical and empirical economic work that recognizes that, ... More

Famines, Hunger, and Later-Life Health  

Gerard J. van den Berg and Maarten Lindeboom

Modern-day famines are caused by unusual impediments or interventions in society, effectively imposing severe market restrictions and preventing the free movement of people and goods. ... More

Financial Frictions in Macroeconomic Models  

Alfred Duncan and Charles Nolan

In recent decades, macroeconomic researchers have looked to incorporate financial intermediaries explicitly into business-cycle models. These modeling developments have helped us to ... More

Financial Protection Against Medical Expense  

Owen O'Donnell

Published Online:
Jun 2019
Financial protection is claimed to be an important objective of health policy. Yet there is a lack of clarity about what it is and no consensus on how to measure it. This impedes the ... More

Financial Strain and Health  

Irina Grafova

Published Online:
Oct 2018
One of the most fundamental results in health economics is that a greater socio-economic status is associated with better health outcomes. However, the experience of financial pressure and ... More

Financing and Policy for Long-Term Care  

Alexandrina Stoyanova and David Cantarero-Prieto

Published Online:
Sep 2018
Long-term care (LTC) systems entitle frail and disabled people, who experience declines in physical and mental capacities, to quality care and support from an appropriately trained ... More

Foreign Direct Investment and International Technology Diffusion  

Difei Geng and Kamal Saggi

Published Online:
Jul 2019
Foreign direct investment (FDI) plays an important role in facilitating the process of international technology diffusion. While FDI among industrialized countries primarily occurs via ... More

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