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Globalization, Trade, and Health Economics  

Richard Smith and Johanna Hanefeld

Online publication date:
Mar 2018
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Health Economics
Global trade—the movement of goods, services, people, and capital between countries—is at the center of modern globalization. Since the late 20th century trade has also become established ... More

The Growth of Health Spending in the United States From 1776 to 2026  

Thomas E. Getzen

Online publication date:
Jun 2019
During the 18th and 19th centuries, medical spending in the United States rose slowly, on average about .25% faster than gross domestic product (GDP), and varied widely between rural and ... More

Health and Economic Growth  

David E. Bloom, Michael Kuhn, and Klaus Prettner

Online publication date:
Feb 2019
The strong observable correlation between health and economic growth is crucial for economic development and sustained well-being, but the underlying causality and mechanisms are difficult ... More

Healthcare System Challenges in Asia  

Winnie Yip

Online publication date:
May 2019
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Health Economics
Important health system challenges in the east and southeast Asian countries/territories of Japan, South Korea, Taiwan, Hong Kong, Malaysia, China, Thailand, Vietnam, Indonesia, the ... More

Health Economics of the Workplace: Workplace Accidents and Effects of Job Loss and Retirement  

Jan C. van Ours

Online publication date:
May 2019
There are three main topics in research on the effects of work on health. The first topic is workplace accidents where the main issues are reporting behavior and workplace safety ... More

Health Information Technology  

Jordan Everson and Melinda Beeuwkes Buntin

Online publication date:
Feb 2019
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Health Economics, Public Economics and Policy
The potential for health information technology (HIT) to reshape the information-intensive healthcare industry has been recognized for decades. Nevertheless, the adoption and use of IT in ... More

Health Insurance and Labor Supply  

Gregory Colman, Dhaval Dave, and Otto Lenhart

Online publication date:
Apr 2019
Health insurance depends on labor market activity more in the U.S. than in any other high-income country. A majority of the population are insured through an employer (known as ... More

Health Insurance and the Demand for Healthcare  

Michael Gerfin

Online publication date:
Mar 2019
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Health Economics
Health insurance increases the demand for healthcare. Since the RAND Health Insurance Experiment in the 1970s this has been demonstrated in many contexts and many countries. From an ... More

Health Insurance Plan Choice and Switching  

Joachim Winter and Amelie Wuppermann

Online publication date:
Jun 2019
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Health Economics
Choice of health insurance plans has become a key element of many healthcare systems around the world along with a general expansion of patient choice under the label of “Consumer-Directed ... More

Health Policy and Finance Challenges in Latin America and the Caribbean: An Economic Perspective  

André Medici and Maureen Lewis

Online publication date:
Apr 2019
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Health Economics
Latin American and Caribbean (LAC) countries have experienced a long-term process of improvement in populational health conditions, shifting their health priorities from child–mother care ... More

Health Status Measurement  

John Mullahy

Online publication date:
Mar 2018
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Health Economics
Health status measurement issues arise across a wide spectrum of applications in empirical health economics research as well as in public policy, clinical, and regulatory contexts. It is ... More

Heterogeneity in Cost-Effectiveness Analysis  

Ciaran N. Kohli-Lynch and Andrew H. Briggs

Online publication date:
Aug 2019
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Health Economics
Cost-effectiveness analysis is conducted with the aim of maximizing population-level health outcomes given an exogenously determined budget constraint. Considerable health economic benefits ... More

Incentives and Performance of Healthcare Professionals  

Martin Chalkley

Economists have long regarded healthcare as a unique and challenging area of economic activity on account of the specialized knowledge of healthcare professionals (HCPs) and the relatively ... More

Incentives in Healthcare Payment Systems  

Ching-to Albert Ma and Henry Y. Mak

Online publication date:
Apr 2019
Health services providers receive payments mostly from private or public insurers rather than patients. Provider incentive problems arise because an insurer misses information about the ... More

Information, Risk Aversion, and Healthcare Economics  

Hendrik Schmitz and Svenja Winkler

Online publication date:
Jun 2018
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Health Economics
The terms information and risk aversion play central roles in healthcare economics. While risk aversion is among the main reasons for the existence of health insurance, information ... More

Investments in Children’s Mental Health  

Daniel Eisenberg and Ramesh Raghavan

Online publication date:
Apr 2019
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Health Economics
One of the most important unanswered questions for any society is how best to invest in children’s mental health. Childhood is a sensitive and opportune period in which to invest in ... More

Machine Learning in Policy Evaluation: New Tools for Causal Inference  

Noémi Kreif and Karla DiazOrdaz

Online publication date:
Jul 2019
While machine learning (ML) methods have received a lot of attention in recent years, these methods are primarily for prediction. Empirical researchers conducting policy evaluations are, on ... More

Measuring Health Utility in Economics  

José Luis Pinto-Prades, Arthur Attema, and Fernando Ignacio Sánchez-Martínez

Online publication date:
May 2019
Quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) are one of the main health outcomes measures used to make health policy decisions. It is assumed that the objective of policymakers is to maximize QALYs. ... More

Medical Malpractice Litigation  

David A. Hyman and Charles Silver

Online publication date:
Mar 2019
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Health Economics, Law and Economics
Medical malpractice is the best studied aspect of the civil justice system. But the subject is complicated, and there are heated disputes about basic facts. For example, are premium spikes ... More

Modeling Chronic Diseases in Relation to Risk Factors  

Pieter van Baal and Hendriek Boshuizen

Online publication date:
May 2019
In most countries, non-communicable diseases have taken over infectious diseases as the most important causes of death. Many non-communicable diseases that were previously lethal diseases ... More

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