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Microinsurance and Rural Health  

Syed Abdul Hamid

Online publication date:
Apr 2019
Health microinsurance (HMI) has been used around the globe since the early 1990s for financial risk protection against health shocks in poverty-stricken rural populations in low-income ... More

Microstructure of Foreign Exchange Markets  

Martin D. D. Evans and Dagfinn Rime

Online publication date:
Jul 2019
An overview of research on the microstructure of foreign exchange (FX) markets is presented. We begin by summarizing the institutional features of FX trading and describe how they have ... More

Mixed Frequency Models  

Eric Ghysels

Online publication date:
Mar 2018
The majority of econometric models ignore the fact that many economic time series are sampled at different frequencies. A burgeoning literature pertains to econometric methods explicitly ... More

Modeling Chronic Diseases in Relation to Risk Factors  

Pieter van Baal and Hendriek Boshuizen

In most countries, non-communicable diseases have taken over infectious diseases as the most important causes of death. Many non-communicable diseases that were previously lethal diseases ... More

Models of Health and Addiction  

Audrey Laporte and Brian S. Ferguson

Online publication date:
Oct 2018
One of the implications of the human capital literature of the 1960s was that a great many decisions individuals make that have consequences not just for the point in time when the ... More

Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis (MCDA) in Healthcare Decision-Making  

Paul Hansen and Nancy Devlin

Online publication date:
Apr 2019
Multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA) is increasingly used to support healthcare decision-making. MCDA involves decision makers evaluating the alternatives under consideration based on ... More

New Monetarist Economics  

Chao Gu, Han Han, and Randall Wright

Online publication date:
May 2019
This article provides an introduction to New Monetarist Economics. This branch of macro and monetary theory emphasizes imperfect commitment, information problems, and sometimes spatial ... More

New Technologies and Costs in Healthcare  

Vincenzo Atella and Joanna Kopinska

Online publication date:
Mar 2019
New sanitation and health technology applied to treatments, procedures, and devices is constantly revolutionizing epidemiological patterns. Since the early 1900s it has been responsible ... More

Noncompliance and Missing Data in Health Economic Evaluation  

Karla DiazOrdaz and Richard Grieve

Health economic evaluations face the issues of noncompliance and missing data. Here, noncompliance is defined as non-adherence to a specific treatment, and occurs within randomized ... More

Nonlinear Models in Macroeconometrics  

Timo Teräsvirta

Many nonlinear time series models have been around for a long time and have originated outside of time series econometrics. The stochastic models popular univariate, dynamic ... More

Optimum Currency Areas Past and Future  

Barry Eichengreen

Online publication date:
Jun 2018
The literature on optimum currency areas differs from that on other topics in economic theory in a number of notable respects. Most obviously, the theory is framed in verbal rather than ... More

Outlier Detection  

Bent Nielsen

This is an advance summary of a forthcoming article in the Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Economics and Finance. Please check back later for the full article. ... More

Pay-for-Performance and Long-Term Care  

Jun Li and Edward C. Norton

Online publication date:
Mar 2019
Pay-for-performance programs have become a prominent supply-side intervention to improve quality and decrease spending in health care, touching upon long-term care, acute care, and ... More

The Positive Economic Theory of Tort Law  

Mark F. Grady

Online publication date:
Apr 2019
Tort law is part of the common law that originated in England after the Norman Conquest and spread throughout the world, including to the United States. It is judge-made law that allows ... More

Poverty and Social Policy in the United States  

James P. Ziliak

Online publication date:
Apr 2019
The interaction between poverty and social policy is an issue of longstanding interest in academic and policy circles. There are active debates on how to measure poverty, including where ... More

Predictive Regressions  

Jesús Gonzalo and Jean-Yves Pitarakis

This is an advance summary of a forthcoming article in the Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Economics and Finance. Please check back later for the full article. ... More

Preferential Trade Agreements: Recent Theoretical and Empirical Developments  

James Lake and Pravin Krishna

In recent decades, there has been a dramatic proliferation of preferential trade agreements (PTAs) between countries that, while legal, contradict the non-discrimination principle of the ... More

Price Regulation and Pay-for-Performance in Public Health Systems  

Luigi Siciliani

Online publication date:
Oct 2018
Payment systems based on fixed prices have become the dominant model to finance hospitals across OECD countries. In the early 1980s, Medicare in the United States introduced the Diagnosis ... More

Price Regulation and Pharmaceuticals  

A. McGuire

Online publication date:
Jun 2018
Pharmaceutical expenditure accounts for approximately 20% of healthcare expenditure across the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) countries. Pharmaceutical ... More

Public Finance and Soft Budgets  

Rosella Levaggi

Online publication date:
Jul 2018
The concept of soft budget constraint, describes a situation where a decision-maker finds it impossible to keep an agent to a fixed budget. In healthcare it may refer to a (nonprofit) ... More

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