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Nonlinear Models in Macroeconometrics  

Timo Teräsvirta

Many nonlinear time series models have been around for a long time and have originated outside of time series econometrics. The stochastic models popular univariate, dynamic ... More

Optimum Currency Areas Past and Future  

Barry Eichengreen

Published Online:
Jun 2018
The literature on optimum currency areas differs from that on other topics in economic theory in a number of notable respects. Most obviously, the theory is framed in verbal rather than ... More

Outlier Detection  

Bent Nielsen

This is an advance summary of a forthcoming article in the Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Economics and Finance. Please check back later for the full article. ... More

Pay-for-Performance and Long-Term Care  

Jun Li and Edward C. Norton

Published Online:
Mar 2019
Pay-for-performance programs have become a prominent supply-side intervention to improve quality and decrease spending in health care, touching upon long-term care, acute care, and ... More

The Positive Economic Theory of Tort Law  

Mark F. Grady

Published Online:
Apr 2019
Tort law is part of the common law that originated in England after the Norman Conquest and spread throughout the world, including to the United States. It is judge-made law that allows ... More

Poverty and Social Policy in the United States  

James P. Ziliak

Published Online:
Apr 2019
The interaction between poverty and social policy is an issue of longstanding interest in academic and policy circles. There are active debates on how to measure poverty, including where ... More

Predictive Regressions  

Jesús Gonzalo and Jean-Yves Pitarakis

This is an advance summary of a forthcoming article in the Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Economics and Finance. Please check back later for the full article. ... More

Price Regulation and Pay for Performance in Public Health Systems  

Luigi Siciliani

Published Online:
Oct 2018
Payment systems based on fixed prices have become the dominant model to finance hospitals across OECD countries. In the early 1980s, Medicare in the United States introduced the Diagnosis ... More

Price Regulation and Pharmaceuticals  

A. McGuire

Published Online:
Jun 2018
Pharmaceutical expenditure accounts for approximately 20% of healthcare expenditure across the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) countries. Pharmaceutical ... More

Public Finance and Soft Budgets  

Rosella Levaggi

Published Online:
Jul 2018
The concept of soft budget constraint, describes a situation where a decision-maker finds it impossible to keep an agent to a fixed budget. In healthcare it may refer to a (nonprofit) ... More

Purchasing Power Parity and Real Exchange Rates  

Menzie D. Chinn

The idea that prices and exchange rates adjust so as to equalize the common-currency price of identical bundles of goods—purchasing power parity (PPP)—is a topic of central importance in ... More

Qualitative Methods in Health Economics  

Joanna Coast and Manuela De Allegri

Published Online:
Mar 2018
Qualitative methods are being used increasingly by health economists, but most health economists are not trained in these methods and may need to develop expertise in this area. This ... More

Quality in Nursing Homes  

Matteo Lippi Bruni, Irene Mammi, and Rossella Verzulli

In developed countries, the role of public authorities as financing bodies and regulators of the long-term care sector is pervasive and calls for well-planned and informed policy actions. ... More

The Rationale for Interventions to Foster Child Development  

Samuel Berlinski and Marcos Vera-Hernández

Published Online:
Jun 2019
Socioeconomic gradients in health, cognitive, and socioemotional skills start at a very early age. Well-designed policy interventions in the early years can have a great impact in closing ... More

Returns to Health Spending in Low- and Middle-Income Countries  

Ijeoma Peace Edoka

Published Online:
Jun 2019
Low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) bear a disproportionately high burden of diseases in comparison to high-income countries, partly due to inequalities in the distribution of ... More

Social Interactions in Health Behaviors and Conditions  

Ana Balsa and Carlos Díaz

Health behaviors are a major source of morbidity and mortality in the developed and much of the developing world. The social nature of many of these behaviors, such as eating or using ... More

Statistical Significance and the Replication Crisis in the Social Sciences  

Anna Dreber and Magnus Johannesson

The recent “replication crisis” in the social sciences has led to increased attention on what statistically significant results entail. There are many reasons for why false positive ... More

Strategies to Counteract Risk Selection in Social Health Insurance Markets  

Richard C. van Kleef, Thomas G. McGuire, Frederik T. Schut, and Wynand P. M. M. van de Ven

Published Online:
Jun 2019
Many countries rely on social health insurance supplied by competing insurers to enhance fairness and efficiency in healthcare financing. Premiums in these settings are typically community ... More

Structural Breaks in Time Series  

Alessandro Casini and Pierre Perron

This article covers methodological issues related to estimation, testing, and computation for models involving structural changes. Our aim is to review developments as they relate to ... More

Supplementary Health Insurance and Regulation of Healthcare Systems  

Brigitte Dormont

Published Online:
Jun 2019
Most developed nations provide generous coverage of care services, using either a tax financed healthcare system or social health insurance. Such systems pursue efficiency and equity in ... More

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