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International Trade Since 1914  

James Foreman-Peck

Online publication date:
Feb 2020
Long-distance international trade for hundreds of years stemmed primarily from differences in climate. Generally free-trade policy and reduced transport cost superimposed another pattern by ... More

International Reserves, Exchange Rates, and Monetary Policy: From the Trilemma to the Quadrilemma  

Joshua Aizenman

The links of international reserves, exchange rates, and monetary policy can be understood through the lens of a modern incarnation of the “impossible trinity” (aka the “trilemma”), based ... More

Investments in Children’s Mental Health  

Daniel Eisenberg and Ramesh Raghavan

Online publication date:
Apr 2019
One of the most important unanswered questions for any society is how best to invest in children’s mental health. Childhood is a sensitive and opportune period in which to invest in ... More

The Law and Economics of Employment Discrimination Law  

Joni Hersch and Blair Druhan Bullock

Online publication date:
Feb 2019
The labor market is governed by a panoply of laws, regulating virtually all aspects of the employment relation, including hiring, firing, information exchange, privacy, workplace safety, ... More

The Law and Political Economy of International Trade Agreements  

Michael Trebilcock

Online publication date:
Apr 2019
While economists overwhelmingly favor free trade, even unilateral free trade, because of the gains realizable from specialization and the exploitation of comparative advantage, in fact ... More

Law, Economics, and Courts  

Nuno Garoupa

Online publication date:
Sep 2018
Law and economics is an important, growing field of specialization for both legal scholars and economists. It applies efficiency analysis to property, contracts, torts, procedure, and many ... More

Long-Distance Trade in Medieval Europe  

Mika Kallioinen

Online publication date:
Jun 2020
Traditional historiography has overestimated the significance of long-distance trade in the medieval economy. However, it could be argued that, because of its dynamic nature, long-distance ... More

Long Memory Models  

Peter Robinson

Long memory models are statistical models that describe strong correlation or dependence across time series data. This kind of phenomenon is often referred to as “long memory” or ... More

Machine Learning in Policy Evaluation: New Tools for Causal Inference  

Noémi Kreif and Karla DiazOrdaz

While machine learning (ML) methods have received a lot of attention in recent years, these methods are primarily for prediction. Empirical researchers conducting policy evaluations are, on ... More

Macroeconomic Aspects of Housing  

Charles Ka Yui Leung and Cho Yiu Joe Ng

This article summarizes research on the macroeconomic aspects of the housing market. In terms of the macroeconomic stylized facts, this article demonstrates that with respect to business ... More

Macroeconomics of the Euro  

Paul Bergin

Online publication date:
Jun 2020
While it is a long-standing idea in international macroeconomic theory that flexible nominal exchange rates have the potential to facilitate adjustment in international relative prices, a ... More

Marriage and Labor Market Outcomes  

Terra McKinnish

Online publication date:
Jan 2020
Marriage and labor market outcomes are deeply related, particularly for women. A large literature finds that the labor supply decisions of married women respond to their husbands’ ... More

Measurement Error: A Primer for Macroeconomists  

Simon van Norden

Online publication date:
Jan 2020
Most applied researchers in macroeconomics who work with official macroeconomic statistics (such as those found in the National Accounts, the Balance of Payments, national government ... More

Measuring Health Utility in Economics  

José Luis Pinto-Prades, Arthur Attema, and Fernando Ignacio Sánchez-Martínez

Online publication date:
May 2019
Quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) are one of the main health outcomes measures used to make health policy decisions. It is assumed that the objective of policymakers is to maximize QALYs. ... More

Measuring the Distributional Impact of Taxation and Public Spending: The Practice of Fiscal Incidence Analysis  

Nora Lustig

Online publication date:
Apr 2020
Taxation and public spending are key policy levers the state has in its power to change the distribution of income determined both by market forces and institutions and the prevailing ... More

Medical Malpractice Litigation  

David A. Hyman and Charles Silver

Online publication date:
Mar 2019
Medical malpractice is the best studied aspect of the civil justice system. But the subject is complicated, and there are heated disputes about basic facts. For example, are premium spikes ... More

Microinsurance and Rural Health  

Syed Abdul Hamid

Online publication date:
Apr 2019
Health microinsurance (HMI) has been used around the globe since the early 1990s for financial risk protection against health shocks in poverty-stricken rural populations in low-income ... More

Microstructure of Foreign Exchange Markets  

Martin D. D. Evans and Dagfinn Rime

Online publication date:
Jul 2019
An overview of research on the microstructure of foreign exchange (FX) markets is presented. We begin by summarizing the institutional features of FX trading and describe how they have ... More

Mixed Frequency Models  

Eric Ghysels

Online publication date:
Mar 2018
The majority of econometric models ignore the fact that many economic time series are sampled at different frequencies. A burgeoning literature pertains to econometric methods explicitly ... More

Modeling Chronic Diseases in Relation to Risk Factors  

Pieter van Baal and Hendriek Boshuizen

In most countries, non-communicable diseases have taken over infectious diseases as the most important causes of death. Many non-communicable diseases that were previously lethal diseases ... More

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